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Cosmogenic Constraints on Sediment Generation and Transport, Namibian Rivers: University of Vermont & State Agricultural College

Paul Bierman

[email protected]

0207669<br/>Bierman<br/><br/>Sediment samples were collected from Namibian Rivers with a vision to answer several fundamental scientific questions and in order to make a significant societal contribution. NSF funding will provide for isotopic analyses of these samples. Overall, the data we collect will be used to test the relationship between nuclide activity (a proxy for basin-scale sediment generation rates) and drainage basin lithology, relief, climate, and area. Such relationships will allow us to predict sediment generation rates where landscape conditions are similar, an important tool for land management.<br/>Cosmogenic nuclides provide a window into the past behavior of landscapes. When measured in drainage basin sediments nuclides such as 10Be and 26Al allow estimation of basin-scale sediment generation rates over time scales determined by the speed at which the sampled landscape erodes; in Namibia, nuclide activities integrate erosion rates over ~105 years. Samples collected from headwater drainages and drainages with little sediment storage will allow rigorous comparison between landscape-scale erosion rates over the later Pleistocene using cosmogenic nuclides and rates integrated over the Cenozoic using fission tracks. Such comparisons provide the fundamental data that allow one to explain the behavior of Earth's surface over time and to test models of landscape evolution such as those proposed to explain the retreat of great escarpments over time. Namibian rivers have wet headwaters where most floods are generated; the rivers lose water as they cross the hyper-arid Namib Desert. Such loss means that most flood events are discontinuous with sediment in transport being stranded at varying distances along the 300 to 400 km long river courses. Only the largest and rarest floods move sediment to the ocean. We will compare our nuclide-based findings related to sediment virtual velocity and sediment source with sediment composition and the historical flood frequency/magnitude records of the two rivers that we sampled in detail.<br/>Understanding long-term sediment fluxes down rivers is important for responsible management of water resources and river corridors. Dams have been placed on several Namibian Rivers and there are plans in the works for others such as a very controversial project in the Kunene River. Clearly, the life time and thus cost-benefit analysis for such massive hydraulic structures depends critically on knowing long-term sediment fluxes. Cosmogenic analysis of river sediments will provide such data. Land use in parts of Africa is intensive. In some places, desertification has been the result of overgrazing and population expansion. Cosmogenic data will determine background rates of sediment generation. Such rates can be compared to modern rates and thus provide the basis for responsible land use management decisions. <br/> <br/>.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Operation of a Marine Atmospheric Sampling Facility at Tudor Hill, Bermuda: Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS), Inc.

Anthony Knap

[email protected]

OCE-0526054<br/><br/>The processes of atmospheric transport and air-sea exchange play major roles in the geochemical cycling of biologically important elements, as well as impacting on the Earth's radiation budget and the distribution of pollutants and pathogens. There is a pressing need to better understand these processes, in order to predict and mitigate the effects of anticipated changes in the global climate and environment. This requires an increased observational and experimental capability with respect to atmospheric transport and atmosphere-ocean exchange processes – an imperative has been recognized in the emergence of research initiatives such as the Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS), GEOTRACES, and the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI). <br/><br/>Bermuda has been a key sampling and observational location for a number of important studies of the marine atmosphere, by virtue of its location in the western North Atlantic, where the atmosphere is impacted by emissions from North America, Europe, North Africa and the surrounding ocean. Bermuda is now well equipped for such studies, with a 23-m high atmospheric sampling tower and site laboratories that were established at Tudor Hill, on the southwest coast of the island, during the NSF-AEROCE program (1987-1998).<br/><br/>Under this award, researchers at the Bermuda Biological Station for Research will receive funding to maintain and operate this valuable facility for use by the research community beyond August 2005. With this support they will: (1) maintain a state-of-the-art atmospheric sampling facility at Tudor Hill, Bermuda; (2) collect, archive and make freely available meteorological data and selected "core" atmospheric samples (weekly bulk aerosols and rainwater) for use by other researchers; and (3) provide the opportunity for the collection of additional atmospheric samples and data for other investigators, and for use of the facility by other investigators. They will assess modest facility-user fees for the collection of samples or data in addition to the weekly "core" sampling, or other uses of the facilities. The anticipated net revenue from these user fees over the project period (ca. $10,000-15,000 per year) will be used to defray the costs of additional technician support, maintenance and equipment replacement for the tower facility. <br/><br/>In terms of broader impacts, the continued operation of the Tudor Hill tower will facilitate a wide variety of ocean-atmosphere research, which is expected to further our knowledge of the Earth system and to improve our ability to predict and mitigate the effects of future environmental change. Within a regional context, the Bermuda tower will form part of an ocean observatory network in the Sargasso Sea, along with ongoing ocean time-series programs including Hydrostation S, the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS), the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program, and the Oceanic Flux Program. Together, these observational programs promise an unprecedented understanding of oceanic and atmospheric processes. This project is expected to make significant educational contributions at a number of levels. Data and samples collected during our renewal project will be made available for use in graduate research projects, as they have been used during our current award. The Tudor Hill facility will also provide opportunities for undergraduate education, through use in BBSR's NSF-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program, and in lecture materials for undergraduate courses that are offered at BBSR. Descriptions of the research carried out at the Tudor Hill facility will continue to be used in BBSR's public outreach activities, such as public lectures, annual open-house day, and on the internet via the BBSR web site. <br/>

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Determining the role of anthropogenic nutrients in supporting fisheries off the Mediterranean coast of Egypt: an approach using stable isotopes: University of Rhode Island

Scott Nixon

[email protected]

Following closure of the Aswan High Dam in 1965 and the elimination of annual flooding of the Nile basin, the Mediterranean Sea fishery off the Egyptian Coast collapsed. Beginning in the mid-1980's, landings began a dramatic recovery and have now reached levels well above those of the pre-dam fishery. Three major hypotheses have been advanced to explain the apparent increase in secondary production on the Egyptian Coast: replacement of the Nile flood nutrients by anthropogenic sources of nitrogen and phosphorous from agricultural drainage and sewage; replacement of Nile nutrients by a change in the large scale circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean waters; and that the apparent increase in production is actually an expansion of fishing effort and improved data collection and statistics. <br/><br/>The principal investigator will track stable nitrogen isotopes from alternate nitrogen sources to the formation of particulate organic matter, fish, and prawns in the large Nile delta lagoons and in fisheries landings from the nearshore Egyptian Shelf waters. Sources include nitrogen derived from land drainage, sewage, Nile water, and Mediterranean Shelf water. Historical changes in inorganic nitrogen over the past century will be examined in sediment cores from delta lagoons and from the near shore shelf. Progress reports will be posted regularly in log form on a website created for middle and secondary public school children. Classroom visits to local Rhode Island schools will emphasize comparing human impacts from sewage, fertilizers, and factories in Narragansett Bay to those in Egypt. With the assistance of colleagues in the National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Egypt, information will be translated into Arabic and published in popular Arabic journals such as Environment & Development Monthly and on heavily visited websites such as Islam Online. Funding for this project is provided by the Office of International Science and Engineering and by the Biological Oceanography Program.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Congruence in Codeswitching and the Nature of Lexical Entries: University of South Carolina at Columbia

Carol Myers-Scotton

[email protected]

9319780 MYERS-SCOTTON ABSTRACT This a project to investigate the structural constraints on intrasentential codeswitching. Specifically, the investigators will collect and analyze intrasentential codeswitching in naturally-occurring languages in particular language pairs, some in the United States and others in Africa or Europe. The language pairs have been selected because apparent differences in the structure of their lexical items will test the hypotheses contained herein. While this study will further our knowledge about intrasentential codeswitching, it is more important for the information it will provide about the nature of lexical entries in some universal sense. This information becomes available from codeswitching data because the existence of sentences containing codeswitching seems to depend on compatibilities between the languages involved regarding Lexical-Conceptual Structures and Predicate-Argument Structures. The playing out of these compatibilities in codeswitching, in turn, provides a uniquely available 'empirical window' on the viability of key theoretical claims about the structure of language. The proposal's eight hypotheses extend the analysis found in the Matrix Language Frame Model of codeswitching (Myers-Scotton 1993b). Under this model, one of the languages participating in codeswitching is more dominant (the Matrix Language) in structuring codeswitching utterances. The less dominant language is called the Embedded Language. The distinction between content and functional categories is also critical in this model. While that model successfully predicts the form of Embedded Language material in sentential frames prepared by the Matrix Language, it is not sufficiently constrained to explain why one option rather than another occurs and the form which Embedded Language material takes. The hypotheses in this proposal provide necessary constraints. This research will provide evidence for or agai nst theories about the nature of the abstract features of lexical entries, including semantic content, and their relation to actually occurring forms. In addition, the results may provide motivations for language production modeling in psycholinguistics, especially in regard to the nature of lemma entries in the mental lexicon. Finally, the project has a material objective. It will provide a large-scale computerized data base of diverse codeswitching data. It is expected that collecting preliminary analysis, data base entry, formal analysis, and a presentation of the results of this study will require three years. ***

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Collaborative Research: Structure and Tone in Luyia: Pomona College

Michael Diercks

[email protected]

How and why do languages vary? Studying closely related languages can tell us important details of the nature of human language, by holding most grammatical properties constant while varying others, across a set of languages. Understanding the limits on such variation?and how such differences arise historically?requires an accurate description of a group of related languages. <br/><br/>The heterogeneous varieties of Luyia, a group of Bantu languages of Kenya and Uganda, provide a laboratory for investigating such micro-variation in grammar. This project will produce the first comprehensive descriptions and formal analyses of four underdocumented Kenyan varieties of Luyia: Bukusu, Logoori, Tiriki, and Wanga. A series of monographs will be developed for each language which include a grammatical outline, a detailed description of the tonal system, in-depth studies in syntax, a collection of texts, and a dictionary. <br/><br/>The diverse tone systems of Luyia are a major focus of this work. Luyia tone has many notable features, including a rare process by which High tones spread leftward across and within words. Complex tonal patterns mark inflectional differences among verb tenses, and syntactically conditioned rules are also found in the phrasal tonology. A solid understanding of these processes bears crucially on theories of the phonology-syntax interface, which are concerned with what kind of syntactic information can be used by a phonological system. These theoretically and typologically interesting features of Luyia tone will be systematically investigated through targeted paradigmatic elicitation. <br/><br/>This project models team-based, data-rich and theoretically informed linguistic description and analysis. The Luyia team draws on the expertise of linguists in multiple subfields and brings together US-based and Africa-based scholars, enriching the practice of linguistics by each group. The monographs, text collections, and dictionaries produced by the project will be made freely available online, and relevant materials will be disseminated within the appropriate local communities.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

US-India Cooperative Research: Evolution of the Cetacean Body Plan–Eocene Whales from India: Northeast Ohio Medical University

Johannes Thewissen

[email protected]

0216710<br/>Thewissen <br/><br/>Description: This award supports the US-India Cooperative Research: Evolution of the Cetacean Body Plan-Eocene Whales from India. US PI Hans Thewissen, Northeastern Ohio University College of Medicine and Sunil Bajpai, Indian Institute of Technology (IITR), Roorkee, India will study one of the most remarkable evolutionary transformations in the vertebrate fossil record, the transformation of cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) from terrestrial quadruped to obligate marine swimmer. They will examine the evolutionary processes and underlying causes, with special reference to the organ systems that underwent the greatest changes in the land to water transition. This project will test hypotheses about the evolutionary processes that determined much of the cetacean body plan. These systems (locomotion, balance, and sound transmission) are documented by fossils and underlie the evolutionary success of the order Cetacea. The PIs will integrate traditional anatomical and functional data with new insights from developmental biology to yield new understanding of the evolutionary process. The investigators will collect and study fossils in India. <br/><br/>Scope: This will be a rare opportunity for the investigators to study the link between paleontology and development. The US and Indian PIs are eminently well qualified; they have complementary expertise and an established collaboration. Bajpai is the leading authority on fossil cetaceans in India and his institution houses its most significant collections. Beyond the scientific community, this study will enhance tools for teaching evolution to students and for explaining scientific processes to the public. The award will further partnerships among researchers including young scientists, collaborative links between the institutions, and advance theoretical interests in both countries. This project is jointly funded by the Indian Department of Science & Technology (DST) under the NSF/DST joint program. <br/><br/>

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Collaborative Research: Structure and Tone in Luyia: University of Missouri-Columbia

Michael Marlo

[email protected]

How and why do languages vary? Studying closely related languages can tell us important details of the nature of human language, by holding most grammatical properties constant while varying others, across a set of languages. Understanding the limits on such variation and how such differences arise historically requires an accurate description of a group of related languages. <br/><br/>The heterogeneous varieties of Luyia, a group of Bantu languages of Kenya and Uganda, provide a laboratory for investigating such micro-variation in grammar. This project will produce the first comprehensive descriptions and formal analyses of four underdocumented Kenyan varieties of Luyia: Bukusu, Logoori, Tiriki, and Wanga. A series of monographs will be developed for each language which include a grammatical outline, a detailed description of the tonal system, in-depth studies in syntax, a collection of texts, and a dictionary. <br/><br/>The diverse tone systems of Luyia are a major focus of this work. Luyia tone has many notable features, including a rare process by which High tones spread leftward across and within words. Complex tonal patterns mark inflectional differences among verb tenses, and syntactically conditioned rules are also found in the phrasal tonology. A solid understanding of these processes bears crucially on theories of the phonology-syntax interface, which are concerned with what kind of syntactic information can be used by a phonological system. These theoretically and typologically interesting features of Luyia tone will be systematically investigated through targeted paradigmatic elicitation. <br/><br/>This project models team-based, data-rich and theoretically informed linguistic description and analysis. The Luyia team draws on the expertise of linguists in multiple subfields and brings together US-based and Africa-based scholars, enriching the practice of linguistics by each group. The monographs, text collections, and dictionaries produced by the project will be made freely available online, and relevant materials will be disseminated within the appropriate local communities.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Assessing poverty dynamics in an arid agrarian context–pre-Saharan Morocco: University of Kentucky Research Foundation

Yoko Kusunose

[email protected]

This research is a two-year interdisciplinary project between an anthropologist (the PI) and an agricultural economist at the University of Kentucky (Dr. Yoko Kusunose). The purpose is to explore the determinants of upward economic mobility and chronic poverty in an oasis valley of southern Morocco and builds on the ethnographic fieldwork conducted for the Fellow's PhD in cultural anthropology at the University of Kentucky. The goals of the research are to: 1) empirically test a model of poverty dynamics developed through ethnographic field methods and a small sample of household case studies; 2) use the tools of economic poverty analysis to explain which households in the Mgoun valley experienced upward mobility or chronic poverty and why; and 3) use empirical, economic and qualitative, anthropological approaches to offer an explanation of vulnerability to poverty that places household strategies to manage income and assets in the context of broader structural and temporal processes. The hypothesis is that multiple stable equilibria–divergent and stable trajectories of capital accumulation for some and chronic poverty for others–have emerged for households in the Mgoun valley of Morocco. The primary research method is a survey of 300 household heads from<br/>throughout the Mgoun valley. The survey will use current and recall data on income, assets, demographic, and livelihoods to test the representativeness of previous research findings and yield new insights about poverty dynamics in this arid agrarian context. Households will be chosen through stratified random sampling techniques. This survey will allow for econometric analysis with the support of the faculty mentor. Complementary anthropological methods such as open and semi-structured interviewing will provide context for the survey data. The data collection and poverty analysis necessary for the project rely on an interdisciplinary collaboration between the quantitative techniques from economics and the anthropological emphasis on complex determinants of social and economic transformation.<br/><br/>Intellectual merit: <br/><br/>The proposed project addresses one of the four topic areas of interest outlined in<br/>the NSF report "Rebuilding the Mosaic": sources of social and economic disparities and processes that alleviate those disparities. It examines sources of disparity in a marginalized arid zone of a strategically important region of the world, North Africa and the Middle East. The research will contribute empirical and theoretical insights into how upward socio-economic mobility of some household may improve overall standards of living but also produces new forms of economic inequality. This contribution, though emerging from data specific to southern Morocco, will be applicable to other situations where migration and arid land agriculture are prominent features of the livelihood systems.<br/><br/>Broader impacts: <br/><br/>Conclusions from this research will be presented to Moroccan policymakers and researchers with the goal of enhancing official understanding of poverty dynamics at the household and community level. This research also has applied implications for development agencies, policymakers, and applied research institutes engaged in broader policy dialogues about how to support rural livelihoods and poverty alleviation efforts. The proposed project uses new theories of poverty dynamics–specifically how a dynamic view of poverty traps predicts who will or will not escape chronic deprivation–to explore how processes of upward mobility can occur outside of government agricultural development or poverty alleviation policies. In the case of southern Morocco, the use of remittances to support the emergence of small-scale commercial agriculture was a largely informal process driven by the migrants and their families, not official programs, but it also engendered new patterns of inequality. This is an important finding with implications for migration policy, poverty alleviation efforts, and our understanding of the role of agriculture in the diversified livelihood portfolios of the marginalized rural poor in arid settings around the world.<br/><br/>In addition, this being a postdoctoral fellowship project, it embodies integration of research, training and education. The project facilitates the Fellow's future career development in the emerging interdisciplinary fields of research within the social, behavioral and economic sciences.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

IRES: A US-Saudi Arabia Collaboration on Hydrometeorological Analysis and Modeling in Complex Terrain: University of Texas at San Antonio

Hatim Sharif

[email protected]

0968836<br/>Sharif<br/><br/>The project is to support an International Research Experience for Students (IRES) for US-Saudi Arabia Collaboration on hydrometeorological analysis and modeling of complex terrain, by US students to work in the south west of Saudi Arabia. The US PI is Dr. Hatim Sharif, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). The foreign collaborator is Dr. Muhammad Al-Zahrani of King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The research aims to organize and conduct field experiments in Saudi Arabia to study the key fundamental processes of the hydrometeorology of arid-semiarid regions. Five U.S. undergraduate and graduate students led by the PI will travel to Saudi Arabia to conduct field experiments together with Saudi counterparts, a faculty member and five students. The experiments will be followed by data analysis, modeling, and hypothesis-driven research. The field experiment involves ?hands-on? training for students in a number of hydrometeorological sensors, field preparation and design of experiments, data collection and analysis, teamwork, and dissemination of knowledge through presentations and publications. Because of its unique arid-semiarid climate, topography, strong diversity in ecology, and susceptibility to flash floods, the study region (Asir in Saudi Arabia) offers a unique environment to perform hypothesis-driven research through an international research experience. <br/>Intellectual Merit: The research has three objectives to: 1) Evaluate satellite-based estimates of evapotranspiration in the region; 2) Characterize orographic controls on the space-time variability of rainfall; and 3) Characterize dominant runoff mechanisms and quantify partitioning of precipitation into surface runoff, infiltration, groundwater recharge, and evapotranspiration through measurement and modeling. The project can eventually become the first step of a series of focused research projects addressing surface water and groundwater sustainability in arid-semiarid regions with similar physiographical settings. <br/>Broader Impacts: Sustaining our precious water resource depends upon our ability to understand and predict the availability and variability of this resource. The project will support 5 U.S. undergraduate and graduate minority students under a faculty member to conduct field experiments in a unique region of an extremely dry country. The field experience will help consolidate inquiry-driven, problem-based learning and promote development of global perspective in scientific research in a region with similar climatic characteristics as parts of South Texas and Mexico from which most UTSA students originate. The program will also help forge relationships between young researchers from both the U.S. and the Middle East in the early stages of their careers. Educational activities will expand collaborations between the UTSA and KFUPM. Two-way mentoring, a colloquium, and outreach activities will ensure that participating students share the gained knowledge and experience with peers and pre-college students. The project can help attract future funding for similar collaborative research activities in neighboring countries in the Arabian Peninsula and promote integrated bi- or multi-national water management policies in the region.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

US-Bhutan Planning Visit: Balancing Modernization and Cultural Preservation in Transitioning Third World Cities-Bhutan's Middle Path: University of North Carolina Greensboro

Susan Walcott

[email protected]

0751263<br/>Susan Walcott <br/><br/>This award supports the US-Bhutan Planning Visit: Balancing Modernization and Cultural Preservation in Transitioning Third World Cities- Bhutan's Middle Path. PI Susan Walcott, University of North Carolina Greensboro plus a graduate research assistant and geography undergraduate will collect several remaining data sets to enable finalization of collaborative research with geographers from the Sherubtse College, Royal University of Bhutan and officials from the Department of Urban Development and Engineering Services, Thimphu. The resulting proposal will be submitted to NSF/SBE's Geography and Regional Science Program, which is providing cofunding to support this award.<br/>

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