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AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Collaborative Research: Structure and Tone in Luyia: Pomona College

Michael Diercks

[email protected]

How and why do languages vary? Studying closely related languages can tell us important details of the nature of human language, by holding most grammatical properties constant while varying others, across a set of languages. Understanding the limits on such variation?and how such differences arise historically?requires an accurate description of a group of related languages. <br/><br/>The heterogeneous varieties of Luyia, a group of Bantu languages of Kenya and Uganda, provide a laboratory for investigating such micro-variation in grammar. This project will produce the first comprehensive descriptions and formal analyses of four underdocumented Kenyan varieties of Luyia: Bukusu, Logoori, Tiriki, and Wanga. A series of monographs will be developed for each language which include a grammatical outline, a detailed description of the tonal system, in-depth studies in syntax, a collection of texts, and a dictionary. <br/><br/>The diverse tone systems of Luyia are a major focus of this work. Luyia tone has many notable features, including a rare process by which High tones spread leftward across and within words. Complex tonal patterns mark inflectional differences among verb tenses, and syntactically conditioned rules are also found in the phrasal tonology. A solid understanding of these processes bears crucially on theories of the phonology-syntax interface, which are concerned with what kind of syntactic information can be used by a phonological system. These theoretically and typologically interesting features of Luyia tone will be systematically investigated through targeted paradigmatic elicitation. <br/><br/>This project models team-based, data-rich and theoretically informed linguistic description and analysis. The Luyia team draws on the expertise of linguists in multiple subfields and brings together US-based and Africa-based scholars, enriching the practice of linguistics by each group. The monographs, text collections, and dictionaries produced by the project will be made freely available online, and relevant materials will be disseminated within the appropriate local communities.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

US-India Cooperative Research: Evolution of the Cetacean Body Plan–Eocene Whales from India: Northeast Ohio Medical University

Johannes Thewissen

[email protected]

0216710<br/>Thewissen <br/><br/>Description: This award supports the US-India Cooperative Research: Evolution of the Cetacean Body Plan-Eocene Whales from India. US PI Hans Thewissen, Northeastern Ohio University College of Medicine and Sunil Bajpai, Indian Institute of Technology (IITR), Roorkee, India will study one of the most remarkable evolutionary transformations in the vertebrate fossil record, the transformation of cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) from terrestrial quadruped to obligate marine swimmer. They will examine the evolutionary processes and underlying causes, with special reference to the organ systems that underwent the greatest changes in the land to water transition. This project will test hypotheses about the evolutionary processes that determined much of the cetacean body plan. These systems (locomotion, balance, and sound transmission) are documented by fossils and underlie the evolutionary success of the order Cetacea. The PIs will integrate traditional anatomical and functional data with new insights from developmental biology to yield new understanding of the evolutionary process. The investigators will collect and study fossils in India. <br/><br/>Scope: This will be a rare opportunity for the investigators to study the link between paleontology and development. The US and Indian PIs are eminently well qualified; they have complementary expertise and an established collaboration. Bajpai is the leading authority on fossil cetaceans in India and his institution houses its most significant collections. Beyond the scientific community, this study will enhance tools for teaching evolution to students and for explaining scientific processes to the public. The award will further partnerships among researchers including young scientists, collaborative links between the institutions, and advance theoretical interests in both countries. This project is jointly funded by the Indian Department of Science & Technology (DST) under the NSF/DST joint program. <br/><br/>

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Collaborative Research: Structure and Tone in Luyia: University of Missouri-Columbia

Michael Marlo

[email protected]

How and why do languages vary? Studying closely related languages can tell us important details of the nature of human language, by holding most grammatical properties constant while varying others, across a set of languages. Understanding the limits on such variation and how such differences arise historically requires an accurate description of a group of related languages. <br/><br/>The heterogeneous varieties of Luyia, a group of Bantu languages of Kenya and Uganda, provide a laboratory for investigating such micro-variation in grammar. This project will produce the first comprehensive descriptions and formal analyses of four underdocumented Kenyan varieties of Luyia: Bukusu, Logoori, Tiriki, and Wanga. A series of monographs will be developed for each language which include a grammatical outline, a detailed description of the tonal system, in-depth studies in syntax, a collection of texts, and a dictionary. <br/><br/>The diverse tone systems of Luyia are a major focus of this work. Luyia tone has many notable features, including a rare process by which High tones spread leftward across and within words. Complex tonal patterns mark inflectional differences among verb tenses, and syntactically conditioned rules are also found in the phrasal tonology. A solid understanding of these processes bears crucially on theories of the phonology-syntax interface, which are concerned with what kind of syntactic information can be used by a phonological system. These theoretically and typologically interesting features of Luyia tone will be systematically investigated through targeted paradigmatic elicitation. <br/><br/>This project models team-based, data-rich and theoretically informed linguistic description and analysis. The Luyia team draws on the expertise of linguists in multiple subfields and brings together US-based and Africa-based scholars, enriching the practice of linguistics by each group. The monographs, text collections, and dictionaries produced by the project will be made freely available online, and relevant materials will be disseminated within the appropriate local communities.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Assessing poverty dynamics in an arid agrarian context–pre-Saharan Morocco: University of Kentucky Research Foundation

Yoko Kusunose

[email protected]

This research is a two-year interdisciplinary project between an anthropologist (the PI) and an agricultural economist at the University of Kentucky (Dr. Yoko Kusunose). The purpose is to explore the determinants of upward economic mobility and chronic poverty in an oasis valley of southern Morocco and builds on the ethnographic fieldwork conducted for the Fellow's PhD in cultural anthropology at the University of Kentucky. The goals of the research are to: 1) empirically test a model of poverty dynamics developed through ethnographic field methods and a small sample of household case studies; 2) use the tools of economic poverty analysis to explain which households in the Mgoun valley experienced upward mobility or chronic poverty and why; and 3) use empirical, economic and qualitative, anthropological approaches to offer an explanation of vulnerability to poverty that places household strategies to manage income and assets in the context of broader structural and temporal processes. The hypothesis is that multiple stable equilibria–divergent and stable trajectories of capital accumulation for some and chronic poverty for others–have emerged for households in the Mgoun valley of Morocco. The primary research method is a survey of 300 household heads from<br/>throughout the Mgoun valley. The survey will use current and recall data on income, assets, demographic, and livelihoods to test the representativeness of previous research findings and yield new insights about poverty dynamics in this arid agrarian context. Households will be chosen through stratified random sampling techniques. This survey will allow for econometric analysis with the support of the faculty mentor. Complementary anthropological methods such as open and semi-structured interviewing will provide context for the survey data. The data collection and poverty analysis necessary for the project rely on an interdisciplinary collaboration between the quantitative techniques from economics and the anthropological emphasis on complex determinants of social and economic transformation.<br/><br/>Intellectual merit: <br/><br/>The proposed project addresses one of the four topic areas of interest outlined in<br/>the NSF report "Rebuilding the Mosaic": sources of social and economic disparities and processes that alleviate those disparities. It examines sources of disparity in a marginalized arid zone of a strategically important region of the world, North Africa and the Middle East. The research will contribute empirical and theoretical insights into how upward socio-economic mobility of some household may improve overall standards of living but also produces new forms of economic inequality. This contribution, though emerging from data specific to southern Morocco, will be applicable to other situations where migration and arid land agriculture are prominent features of the livelihood systems.<br/><br/>Broader impacts: <br/><br/>Conclusions from this research will be presented to Moroccan policymakers and researchers with the goal of enhancing official understanding of poverty dynamics at the household and community level. This research also has applied implications for development agencies, policymakers, and applied research institutes engaged in broader policy dialogues about how to support rural livelihoods and poverty alleviation efforts. The proposed project uses new theories of poverty dynamics–specifically how a dynamic view of poverty traps predicts who will or will not escape chronic deprivation–to explore how processes of upward mobility can occur outside of government agricultural development or poverty alleviation policies. In the case of southern Morocco, the use of remittances to support the emergence of small-scale commercial agriculture was a largely informal process driven by the migrants and their families, not official programs, but it also engendered new patterns of inequality. This is an important finding with implications for migration policy, poverty alleviation efforts, and our understanding of the role of agriculture in the diversified livelihood portfolios of the marginalized rural poor in arid settings around the world.<br/><br/>In addition, this being a postdoctoral fellowship project, it embodies integration of research, training and education. The project facilitates the Fellow's future career development in the emerging interdisciplinary fields of research within the social, behavioral and economic sciences.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

IRES: A US-Saudi Arabia Collaboration on Hydrometeorological Analysis and Modeling in Complex Terrain: University of Texas at San Antonio

Hatim Sharif

[email protected]

0968836<br/>Sharif<br/><br/>The project is to support an International Research Experience for Students (IRES) for US-Saudi Arabia Collaboration on hydrometeorological analysis and modeling of complex terrain, by US students to work in the south west of Saudi Arabia. The US PI is Dr. Hatim Sharif, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). The foreign collaborator is Dr. Muhammad Al-Zahrani of King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The research aims to organize and conduct field experiments in Saudi Arabia to study the key fundamental processes of the hydrometeorology of arid-semiarid regions. Five U.S. undergraduate and graduate students led by the PI will travel to Saudi Arabia to conduct field experiments together with Saudi counterparts, a faculty member and five students. The experiments will be followed by data analysis, modeling, and hypothesis-driven research. The field experiment involves ?hands-on? training for students in a number of hydrometeorological sensors, field preparation and design of experiments, data collection and analysis, teamwork, and dissemination of knowledge through presentations and publications. Because of its unique arid-semiarid climate, topography, strong diversity in ecology, and susceptibility to flash floods, the study region (Asir in Saudi Arabia) offers a unique environment to perform hypothesis-driven research through an international research experience. <br/>Intellectual Merit: The research has three objectives to: 1) Evaluate satellite-based estimates of evapotranspiration in the region; 2) Characterize orographic controls on the space-time variability of rainfall; and 3) Characterize dominant runoff mechanisms and quantify partitioning of precipitation into surface runoff, infiltration, groundwater recharge, and evapotranspiration through measurement and modeling. The project can eventually become the first step of a series of focused research projects addressing surface water and groundwater sustainability in arid-semiarid regions with similar physiographical settings. <br/>Broader Impacts: Sustaining our precious water resource depends upon our ability to understand and predict the availability and variability of this resource. The project will support 5 U.S. undergraduate and graduate minority students under a faculty member to conduct field experiments in a unique region of an extremely dry country. The field experience will help consolidate inquiry-driven, problem-based learning and promote development of global perspective in scientific research in a region with similar climatic characteristics as parts of South Texas and Mexico from which most UTSA students originate. The program will also help forge relationships between young researchers from both the U.S. and the Middle East in the early stages of their careers. Educational activities will expand collaborations between the UTSA and KFUPM. Two-way mentoring, a colloquium, and outreach activities will ensure that participating students share the gained knowledge and experience with peers and pre-college students. The project can help attract future funding for similar collaborative research activities in neighboring countries in the Arabian Peninsula and promote integrated bi- or multi-national water management policies in the region.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

US-Bhutan Planning Visit: Balancing Modernization and Cultural Preservation in Transitioning Third World Cities-Bhutan's Middle Path: University of North Carolina Greensboro

Susan Walcott

[email protected]

0751263<br/>Susan Walcott <br/><br/>This award supports the US-Bhutan Planning Visit: Balancing Modernization and Cultural Preservation in Transitioning Third World Cities- Bhutan's Middle Path. PI Susan Walcott, University of North Carolina Greensboro plus a graduate research assistant and geography undergraduate will collect several remaining data sets to enable finalization of collaborative research with geographers from the Sherubtse College, Royal University of Bhutan and officials from the Department of Urban Development and Engineering Services, Thimphu. The resulting proposal will be submitted to NSF/SBE's Geography and Regional Science Program, which is providing cofunding to support this award.<br/>

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Analysis of Recorded Ju/.hoan San Language Events as Political Action, 1990-Present: Biesele, Marguerite A.

Marguerite Biesele

Dr. Megan Biesele will undertake research on changes in political language among the Ju/'hoan San of Namibia and Botswana who are the most extensively studied nomadic hunting and gathering people in the world. The Nyae Nyae Tape Archive (NNTA) is a unique record capturing the perceptions of the Ju/'hoan, a "click"-speaking people, in their own words. Recorded between 1970 – 2010 and now digitized, the NNTA is being transcribed and translated by the Ju/'hoan Transcription Group trained since 2002 in Tsumkwe, Namibia. It contains documentation of Ju/'hoan-language dialogue on land and leadership from 1988 to the present, a period when apartheid South West Africa became independent Namibia that will provide the baseline data with which new speech collected through this project will be compared. <br/><br/>Linguistic analysis of content, framing, intonation, and syntax will show how the Ju/'hoan through their people's organization, the Nyae Nyae Conservancy, confront issues of the present, including environmental pressure from neighboring pastoralists and the ongoing challenges of minority representation in Namibia. The focus will be on how discourse about such topics has changed overtime. Importantly, the NNTA recordings allow identification of recent changes in the rhetorical and oratorical principles underlying Ju/'hoan politics. In the planned research, thus, the old and new recordings illuminate current Ju/'hoan history "from within". The Ju/'hoan now struggle to adapt to state imperatives during the current unavoidable transition from egalitarian to more hierarchical governance. These new realities are expressed in changing modes of discourse of intense interest to anthropologists. <br/><br/>Beyond scholarly impacts, the project's archives will also help Ju/'hoan people themselves better understand how their rhetoric has operated to effect change and provide a unique longitudinal record of discourse changes among a nomadic hunting and gathering population undergoing rapid and massive cultural transformation.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

U.S.-Middle East Workshop: Collaborative Research in Computers and Communications, Summer 2004, Alexandria, Egypt: Old Dominion University Research Foundation

Hussein Abdel-Wahab

[email protected]

0422565 <br/>Abdel-Wahab<br/><br/>Description: This project supports a US-Egypt Workshop on Computers and Communications, to be held in conjunction with the IEEE International Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC) planned for Alexandria, Egypt. The U.S. organizer is Dr. Hussein Abdel-Wahab, Department of Computer Science at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia. The Egyptian co-organizer is Dr. Mohamed Ismail, Department of Electrical Engineering, Alexandria University, Egypt. ISCC is a well-established international conference. Scientists and students from the USA and the Middle East will be participating. Topics to be covered will include: Agent and Knowledge Base Technology; Data Mining; Real-Time Communications Services; Mobil Ad-hoc and Sensor Networks; Multimedia Information management and Exchange; Overlay and Programmable Networks, and Security and Cryptography. It is expected that the two sides will discuss advances in these areas and recommend areas for mutually beneficial collaborative projects<br/><br/>Scope: This joint workshop will result in new insights into research issues and could potentially impact the global economy through improvements in communications and computer utilization. Students from the U.S. and from the Middle East region will be invited to participate. The participating scientists and students will get an international perspective on research issues. A small part of funding is for the travel of Middle East students and researchers. The interaction is likely to lead to more collaboration with M.E. researchers and students. Students, especially women students, from the M.E. may get motivated to come to the U.S. country for education. The workshop may provide support for technical development in the host country and region. <br/>

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

International Research Fellow Awards Program: Boundary Analysis of Mammal Densities in Protected, Pastoral and Agropastoral Landscapes in Western Tanzania: Coppolillo, Peter B

Peter Coppolillo

0076213<br/>Coppolillo<br/><br/>The International Research Fellow Awards Program enables U.S. scientists and engineers to conduct three to twenty-four months of research abroad. The program's awards provide opportunities for joint research, and the use of unique or complementary facilities, expertise and experimental conditions abroad.<br/><br/>This award will provide Dr. Peter Coppolillo with support for twenty-four months to work with Dr. Simon Mduma at the Serengeti Wildlife Research Centre in Tanzania.<br/><br/>The goal of this project is to understand the factors limiting species' distributions in semi-natural habitats. The researchers will examine the effects of livestock grazing intensity (resource competition), human presence (interference competition), wood cutting (habitat modification), and landscape change from cultivation (fragmentation). Specifically, they will structure sampling using a boundary model, which examines transitions between landscape units (protected, pastoral and agropastoral areas). Data will be analyzed using multiple logistic regression and principal components analysis. This work will provide an important observational basis for understanding the effects of semi-natural matrix habitat on protected areas. This will help disaggregate the factors affecting large mammal distributions and identify key variables for future experimental investigation. Results will provide insights helpful to protected area management and for community-based conservation.<br/><br/>Dr. Mduma is director of the Serengeti Biodiversity Program (SBP) located in Arusha, Tanzania. The location of this project, the Rukwa Valley is an ideal site because of its local salience and because it will provide important ecological data on an underrepresented ecosystem, Miombo woodlands. <br/>***<br/>

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Leaching of Nickel Copper Iron Sulfides in Cupric Chloride Media, Award in U.S. and Indian Currencies.: Board of Regents, NSHE, obo University of Nevada, Reno

Renato Bautista

[email protected]

Description: This project is for support of cooperative research by Dr. Renato Bautista of the Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering at the University of Nevada, Reno and Dr. C.K. Gupta of the Extractive Metallurgy Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research center (BARC) in Bombay, India. The project is to characterize the application of cupric chloride leaching to complex nickeliferous sulfide ores where the nickel is mainly present in the minerals millerite (NiS) and pentlandite (NiFeS). Experimental work will be done at BARC and mathematical modeling will be developed by the U. of Nevada team. The effect of different parameters on the rate of leaching of the nickel sulfides will be examined. The rate of dissolution of both millerite and pentlandite will be developed from the experimental data, including their rate constants and activation energies. The mathematical model will cover the leaching reactions and the simultaneous reactions in the solution phase. The information derived from the experimental work and the model will be applied to an indigenous nickel-copper sulfide concentrate. Scope: the project brings together two experienced scientists from India and the U.S. to work on a problem that has significant importance to the material processing industry in the U.S. and India. This collaboration meets the objective of the U.S.-India Cooperative Program.

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