Category

Freedom Cheteni

Home / Freedom Cheteni
AwardsFreedom CheteniSchool Administrators ResearchThe Superintendents Journal

CAREER: New Probes of Heterogeneity in Next-Generation Nanocrystal Emitters: University of California-Los Angeles

Justin Caram

[email protected]

Professor Justin R. Caram of the University of California-Los Angeles is supported by the Macromolecular, Supramolecular, and Nanochemistry (MSN) Program and the Chemical Structure, Dynamics, and Mechanisms-A (CSDM-A) Program of the Division of Chemistry to develop new spectroscopic measurement methods to study the emission of short-wave infrared light from quantum dots. The quantum dots are incredibly small, man-made nanocrystals with diameters about 10,000 times narrower than a human hair. The research seeks to overcome the current limitations on instrumentation and methods at the single nanocrystal level. This goal is important because the nanocrystals come as an non-uniform mix of particles with different sizes, shapes and structures. This mixture complicates their study and hinders their use in optoelectronic devices. The knowledge obtained on single crystals may open the way for the systematic formation of uniform quantum dot materials with decreased toxicity and new functionality in the short-wave infrared — a spectral region beyond where human eyes can see. Success in conducting the research may widens the use of quantum dots in biomedical imaging, next-generation optoelectronic devices, optical communications, and solar energy conversion. During the course of this research, Professor Caram is revamping general chemistry courses through the development of learning laboratories that incorporate new pedagogical technologies to help students develop skills and motivation to continue their schooling in STEM majors after their first year in college. <br/> <br/>In this project, Professor Caram and his research team are supported to develop spectroscopic techniques to probe the intrinsic photo properties of short-wave infrared emitting (SWIR) colloidal nanocrystals, including HgX and CuInS2. The statistical variations from nanocrystal to nanocrystal and the average and distribution of exciton and mutilexciton lifetimes, yields and spectra of these nanoparticles in solution are assessed. SWIR photon-counting and correlation is achieved using recently developed spectroscopic tools. The project combines new infrared active detectors suitable for efficient photon counting, timing and correlation in shortwave infrared; path-length Mach-Zehnder interferometry to attain simultaneous temporal and spectral resolution, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to probe emitters as they diffuse through a focal volume in dilute solution. The research starts with a focus on HgX (X=S, Se, Te) quantum confined nanocrystals, which exhibit tunable bandgaps from 0 to 1.6 eV and have a wide range of applications in lasing, quantum communications, and infrared sensing. The focus shifts to the toxic cadmium-free nanostructure (CuInS2), which displays complex ensemble photoluminescence, including trap/defect emission, electrochemical doping and non-stoichiometry. The method employed resolves and correlates the energies of emitted photons as a function of inter-photon spacing, creating a two-dimensional map of emitter stream from dilute ensemble, in analogy to two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

AwardsFreedom CheteniSchool Administrators ResearchThe Superintendents Journal

Signatures of peculiar velocities in the cosmic microwave background: University of Southern California

Elena Pierpaoli

[email protected]

The statistics of the peculiar velocity field of galaxy clusters (i.e., motions not related to expansion of the universe) are highly informative about the nature of dark matter, dark energy, and the theory of gravity. Currently, peculiar velocity measurements on large scales are limited to only the line-of-sight components of clusters, leaving most of the available information in the velocity field inaccessible to us. The yet-undetected transverse components can be traced through the cosmic microwave background (CMB) via two effects: (i) the Birkinshaw-Gull (BG) effect in CMB temperature, and (ii) the Kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldocivh (kSZ) effect in CMB polarization. In this research, we make a realistic assessment of the detectability of these signals with the near future CMB experiments, and also investigate the possibility of exploiting the statistics of these signals for cosmology. The PI will develop a creative educational product for K-12 students to promote awareness of and interest in physics and cosmology, in particular the physics of galaxy clusters and structure formation. K-12 teachers will be trained to use this educational product leveraging on existing relationships via the USC family of schools. The developed material will also be available online for all educators willing to download and use it.<br/> <br/>The amplitude of both BG and kSZ effects are subdominant with respect to the primary CMB anisotropies and current instrumental noise levels. Aside from this, the signals can be confused with other emissions from within and outside the clusters, gravitational lensing effects, and uncertainties in clusters' physical description. Therefore, it is almost impossible to observe these effects for individual objects. Nevertheless, it is still possible to achieve a successful detection of them by employing novel statistical methods in the analysis of data. One example is to use pairwise statistical estimators which have been shown to significantly increase the detection signal-to-noise ratio. Throughout this project we will investigate the possibility of measuring these signals in the near future using the next generation of CMB surveys. We will provide forecast analyses through semi-analytical and numerical simulations of clusters and introduce proper map-filtering techniques and new statistical tools for this purpose. The current general interest in producing larger and deeper CMB surveys with improved intensity and polarization sensitivities makes this an appropriate time to further the study of peculiar velocities and inspect their cosmological implications.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

AwardsFreedom CheteniSchool Administrators ResearchThe Superintendents Journal

CAREER: The role of seasonal migration in avian diversification: Colorado State University

Kristen Ruegg

[email protected]

The goal of this project is to explore the role of natural selection on the wintering grounds of seasonal migratory birds in maintaining or opposing adaptive divergence. The project takes advantage of the wealth of information available for one of the most widely studied groups of animals. Additionally, the work will provide important information across all habitats for use in conservation of Neotropical migratory birds, over half of which are declining, by predicting the capacity of seasonal migratory animals to adapt to rapid environmental change. The project includes a 3-part plan to improve STEM education for underrepresented minority groups at the local, national, and international level: 1) Bird Camp ? a multi-day educational outreach program targeting low-income schools in Fort Collins, Colorado; 2) Birds without Borders ? a series of Spanish language (with English subtitles) videos that highlight the work of Latin American and female scientists developed with nature documentary film makers; and 3) Mexico Bioinformatics Workshop ? an international genomic sequencing and bioinformatics workshop in collaboration with US and Mexican scientists. <br/><br/>Theoretical models have long supported the idea that strong migratory connections across the annual cycle will promote local adaptation to wintering areas, but empirical research to support this hypothesis is unexplored. This knowledge gap resulted from technological hurdles related to the inability to track migratory movements and assess patterns of adaptive divergence across the genome. The goal of the proposed work is to take advantage of recent advances in tracking technology and genomic sequencing to test theoretical predictions regarding the role of previously unexplored events on the wintering grounds in the process of adaptive evolution. The proposed work will leverage and synthesize population genomic and migratory movement data for 11 species of migratory birds to provide the first empirical test of the hypothesis that strong migratory connections across the annual cycle promote local adaptation to wintering areas. Genetic estimates of gene flow across time and space will be combined with habitat modeling to answer basic questions about the role of ecology and phenology in the process of adaptive divergence in seasonal migratory birds. The integration of ecological, molecular, and statistical approaches across a range of species will allow fundamental evolutionary questions to be addressed.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

AwardsFreedom CheteniSchool Administrators ResearchThe Superintendents Journal

Observing LIGO/Virgo-triggered neutron star mergers with the Dark Energy Camera: a new path for Cosmology: Brandeis University

Marcelle Soares-Santos

[email protected]

This project will make a precision measurement of the cosmic expansion rate. This hybrid program has a target of opportunity follow-up component and a survey component. The survey will strategically cover the regions of interest of many black hole events. It will collect a sample of gravitational-wave triggered neutron star merger events and a sample of black hole mergers for which potential host galaxies have been cataloged. The rate of cosmic expansion is a key parameter in modern cosmology. There is currently tension between local measurements and the results from cosmic microwave background studies, which motivates the pursuit of improved independent observables: gravitational waves have long been proposed as one such. This work covers two such alternatives. Broadening the impact of research on society at large requires effective communication to audiences from diverse backgrounds, including pre-college teens currently under-represented in STEM fields. The researcher will engage with high schools and emphasize under-represented groups, using the infrastructure of the Brandeis Science Communication Laboratory.<br/><br/>This study uses the full range of available data from the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on NSF's Blanco 4-meter telescope in Chile, including images taken as part of the Dark Energy Survey (DES), as well as non-DES DECam images. It will also use data from another NSF facility, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory, LIGO. Methods to be used include a Hubble diagram fit to a sample of neutron star mergers and a statistical dark sirens analysis for black hole events. This is a new method independent of other cosmological probes, because standard sirens are distance indicators based solely on general relativity. Detectors with enough sensitivity to enable this approach became operational in 2015. This research will fully exploit the novel datasets as multi-messenger probes for cosmology using DES/DECam data, making a measurement of the expansion rate with 3-5% (statistical) uncertainty by 2022, and enabling percent-level precision with future data from facilities like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

AwardsFreedom CheteniSchool Administrators ResearchThe Superintendents Journal

CAREER: Light-matter interactions at the single emitter level: Precise control of plasmon-exciton coupling: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Esther Wertz

[email protected]

When light interacts with matter, its properties ? color and energy, for example ? can be drastically modified. New techniques for manipulating light will enable better solutions to some of today?s biggest challenges, from maximizing efficiency in transforming sunlight into electricity to building faster computers. This project aims to control light at the quantum limit?one particle of light (or photon) at a time?using nanometer-scale metal structures. However, many questions remain about how such nanometer-scale structures affect individual photons. Thus, the first goal of this project is to develop new microscopy methods that will permit the study of light-matter interactions near these metal structures with unprecedented resolution. With this newfound understanding, the second goal is to use the nano-particles to construct the first step towards a quantum computer, which promises an explosion of power and speed in the computers of the future. This project also has broad goals to create space for all students to thrive, regardless of gender, race, and socioeconomic background. This will be achieved, in part, by expanding the scope of the Rensselaer Women in Physics group?s outreach activities to the local elementary and middle schools, and by incorporating diversity education into the physics curriculum. <br/><br/>The potential of quantum information science is fueling demand for the design and generation of new qubits and devices, such as transistors, operating at the single-particle level. Localized surface plasmon resonances in metal nano-particles offer the ability to confine the electromagnetic field to scales well below the diffraction limit of light, and promise the possibility of integratable devices operating at the quantum level. In particular, these plasmon resonances can strongly couple with molecular or semiconductor excitons to form new hybridized states. These states can be used to develop single-photon transistors and other building blocks of a functioning quantum circuit. However, several roadblocks have up to now limited plasmons? practical use. Indeed, although plasmonic modes present the advantage of coupling very strongly to matter, the very small mode volume in plasmonic cavities makes it difficult to get good spatial overlap with single emitters such as quantum dots. This research project proposes to design, develop, and characterize new methods for the fundamental investigation and precise control of the coupling between single quantum emitters and plasmonic nano-cavities. The research objectives include: (1) Developing a new tool to experimentally measure the local density of states using single-molecule super-resolution microscopy, and to understand light-matter interactions in the vicinity of plasmonic nano-structures, beyond what can be learned from simulations of the structure design; (2) Achieving reproducible and controllable coupling between individual quantum emitters and a plasmonic nano-cavity using plasmonic optical trapping; (3) Studying the transition from weak to strong coupling regime in real time and using the strongly coupled system to demonstrate single photon blockade.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

AwardsFreedom CheteniSchool Administrators ResearchThe Superintendents Journal

Collaborative Research: Workshop on Exuberance of Machine Learning in Transport Phenomena: Carnegie-Mellon University

Amir Barati Farimani

[email protected]

This award is to support the Workshop on Exuberance of Machine Learning in Transport Phenomena to be held on February 10-11, 2020 in Dallas, Texas. The workshop focuses on highlighting the current state-of-the-art and future directions on the application of Machine Learning on transport phenomena research. With the growth of Machine Learning in all areas of science and engineering, we have observed a rapid growth in the number of workshops, conferences, and summer schools all over the world. This workshop is unique in which it brings together national experts from all areas of transport phenomena research to exchange ideas, and to establish a better understanding on limitations and potentials of Machine Learning. <br/><br/>The workshop program includes invited speakers who will offer their expert views of important directions in Machine Learning, transport phenomena, and their intersection. It will also involve panel discussions on related topics, exploring novel ways to advance the field, and to identify gaps across the curriculum for effective training and education of the future generation of scientists and engineers capable of tackling important problems at the intersection of these two subjects. A Final Report will be prepared at the end of the workshop which will include a summary of the workshop and the major recommendations made by the experts in the field.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

AwardsFreedom CheteniSchool Administrators ResearchThe Superintendents Journal

Supporting Graduation of Undergraduate STEM Majors Through Scholarships, Mentoring, and Activities That Develop Students' Academic and Scientific Identity: Barry University

Tamara Hamilton

[email protected]

This project will contribute to the national need for highly skilled scientists, mathematicians, engineers, and technicians. It will do so by supporting the retention and graduation of high-achieving, low-income students with demonstrated financial need at Barry University. The project will provide four-year scholarships to a single cohort of up to 15 students. These Scholars will pursue Bachelor?s degrees in biology, chemistry, computer information science, computer science, or mathematics. Scholars will engage in activities to help them develop a greater sense of belonging. One of these activities is a summer bridge program that includes developmental courses and community-building activities. In addition, Scholars will have support from peer mentors and faculty who are trained in practices that help students develop a greater sense of belonging at the University and in STEM. The project will maintain industry and workforce partnerships to provide Scholars with pathways into STEM careers. The project includes an assessment plan to measure how well the activities have improved the student experience at Barry University, which is a minority-serving institution where more than 30% of students are first-generation, and up to 60% receive Federal need-based loans. Previous studies have been done of similar activities at highly selective universities. The studies show that these support activities can reduce the gap in academic outcomes between students with higher and lower financial need. Understanding whether the same effects can be achieved at Barry University can guide efforts by other institutions to increase recruitment, retention, student success, and graduation rates of students with financial need.<br/><br/><br/>The overall goal of this project is to increase STEM degree completion of low-income, high-achieving undergraduates with demonstrated financial need. The specific aims are to: 1) recruit at least twenty low-income students with academic potential from Title I high schools in Miami-Dade and Broward counties to the Summer Bridge Program; 2) award twelve to fifteen scholarships to students who demonstrate academic achievement, persistence, and engagement; 3) train faculty and peer mentors in practices shown to have positive outcomes for students with low-socio-economic status (low-SES); 4) implement a learning community that encourages engagement through evidence-based approaches proven to improve the university climate for low-SES students; 5) provide Scholars with STEM-engagement opportunities, career and research internships, and connections to industry; and 6) achieve retention, graduation, and placement benchmarks (80% retention; 60% four-year graduation; 80% of Scholars in STEM jobs or advanced education within a year of graduation). The project team will use a mixed-methods approach to examine the effectiveness of the interventions at improving achievement, well-being, and retention of STEM students from low-income backgrounds at a minority-serving institution. The results of the study, along with iterative evaluations of programming, can help to improve the success of this student population nationwide, thereby contributing to a diverse, highly trained, globally competitive STEM workforce. This project is funded by NSF?s Scholarships in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics program, which seeks to increase the number of low-income academically talented students with demonstrated financial need who earn degrees in STEM fields. It also aims to improve the education of future STEM workers, and to generate knowledge about academic success, retention, transfer, graduation, and academic/career pathways of low-income students.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

AwardsFreedom CheteniSchool Administrators ResearchThe Superintendents Journal

RUI: NSF/DMR-BSF: Nonequilibrium Quantum Matter: Timescales and Self-Averaging: Yeshiva University

Lea Ferreira dos Santos

[email protected]

NONTECHNICAL SUMMARY<br/>This award supports a theoretical and computational research collaboration between a PI funded by the National Science Foundation and a PI funded by the Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF). The collaboration will combine complementary skills and resources to perform computational and theoretical studies of systems comprised of many interacting particles that are far from the state of equilibrium and which are described by quantum mechanics. The properties of systems in equilibrium do not change in time. In contrast the properties of nonequilibrium systems like, for example, the electrons in a nanomaterial that has been exposed to a burst of light, change. This research aims to advance understanding of how systems far from equilibrium relax to achieve the equilibrium state. The PI's aim is to further understand the dynamical behavior of quantum mechanical systems driven by external fields. <br/><br/>Understanding the properties of many-body quantum systems out of equilibrium is a fundamental problem of great interest to many fields, including atomic, molecular, and condensed matter physics, quantum information science, and cosmology. The team's studies may lead to:<br/>*) the prediction and discovery of new phases of matter that only appear in quantum systems out of equilibrium. New phases of matter are tightly connected with the development of new materials needed in emerging technologies and to improve existing device technologies. <br/>*) insight into quantum computing. The models used in these studies are analogous to those used in the development of technologies that manipulate quantum mechanical states to perform computation, quantum computing. Advances in the understanding of many-body quantum systems can lead to revolutionary developments in both computational capabilities and encryption technologies.<br/><br/>This project will foster the participation of women in STEM fields by engaging female undergraduate students in the research. It will help motivate young women to study physics by giving presentations about what can be done with a degree in physics in venues like open houses and visits to high schools for girls. The PI also aims to modernize the curriculum at Stern College for Women by integrating computational activities into the undergraduate science courses. Computer codes and tutorials developed through this project will be posted online to contribute to the integration of teaching and research at other institutions. The collaboration will also benefit the undergraduate students of Stern College for Women, who will have the opportunity to experience research at a PhD granting institution in Israel.<br/><br/><br/>TECHNICAL SUMMARY<br/>This award supports a theoretical and computational research collaboration between a PI funded by the National Science Foundation and a PI funded by the Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF). The collaboration will combine complementary skills and resources with an aim to advance understanding of the dynamics of many-body quantum systems, an outstanding challenge at the forefront of theoretical and experimental physics. It bridges fields as diverse as atomic, molecular, condensed matter, and high-energy physics. The widespread interest in the subject is prompted by new theoretical and computational methods, and by experimental access to ever longer coherent evolutions. Particular attention has been given to the conditions for equilibration, thermalization, and localization in interacting systems described by static and driven Hamiltonians, themes to which both the PI and the BSF-PI have made several important contributions. Yet, a challenging question that remains open refers to the time for these systems to equilibrate. Existing results, often based on abstract models, are contradictory. Also debated are: the time that marks the onset of universal behavior, what Thouless time is in interacting systems, the duration of exponential behaviors, and how these timescales relate with the heating timescale of driven systems. To characterize these various timescales, the team will consider realistic models and experimental observables, and will take advantage of their experience with quantum chaos and random matrix theory to identify general behaviors and derive analytical expressions. While the PI has mostly focused on time-independent Hamiltonians, the BSF-PI will bring in his expertise on driven systems. In addition to dynamics and timescales, self-averaging will also be a central topic of this project. Contrary to ergodicity, self-averaging in interacting quantum systems out of equilibrium has received very little attention, despite its importance to the development of theoretical models, as well as to experiments and numerical simulations, where access to many realizations may be costly.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

AwardsFreedom CheteniSchool Administrators ResearchThe Superintendents Journal

Convergent Paths Toward Universality in Complex Systems: Santa Fe Institute

David Krakauer

[email protected]

The workshop,"Convergent Paths towards Universality in Complex Systems", will bring together scientists from very diverse disciplinary backgrounds, including psychologists, physicists, ecologists, biologists, computer scientists, mathematicians, information theorists, and others to articulate a convergence approach to explore the recent discovery of universal or near-universal properties of complex systems. The two-day workshop, to be held in the Washington D.C. area will address universality in four primary areas: Information Processing and Collective Computation, Adaptive Dynamics, Scaling and Interactions and Energetics. The workshop will contribute new perspectives on universality and will be an important and necessary step in the identification of further research necessary for discovery in these converging fields. The results of this project will achieve broad impact through the workshop's contributions to increased insight into universality. Results of the workshop will be distributed broadly to a wide range of audiences through peer-reviewed reports, media announcements, and lectures at SFI's workshops and schools attended by academics, policymakers, and other stakeholders. The workshop will also be videotaped for dissemination via the SFI website and YouTube channel as well as for use in SFI sponsored training. Invited workshop participants will include a very diverse range of participants in order to achieve diversity across a number of dimensions, including faculty rank, gender, underrepresented groups and institutional diversity. This approach will facilitate the scientific and professional development of early career researchers as well as the inclusion of scientists from traditionally underrepresented groups. <br/><br/>The workshop will bring together research leaders across diverse disciplines for intensive discussions aimed at exploration of common mechanisms underlying a range of features of complex systems. The recent widespread adoption of information-theory, scaling theory, non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, and the theory of computation, in fields that go far beyond their disciplinary origins suggests a significant convergence that points toward universality. This meeting will focus on the most successful examples of unification and seek to explore their basis and generalization. The meeting will identify tools, models and theories that extend beyond the boundaries of single disciplines, and thereby provide significant improvements through novel approaches, to progress within any given field.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

AwardsFreedom CheteniSchool Administrators ResearchThe Superintendents Journal

MRI: Acquisition of a High-Resolution Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer for Environmental Monitoring and Metabolomics Research and Training: Brown University

Kurt Pennell

[email protected]

Recent instances of human exposure to environmental contaminants include the situation with lead in Flint, Michigan tap water and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the Cape Fear River Basin, which serves as a drinking water supply for Wilmington, North Carolina. These cases have contributed to a public awakening and recognition about a range of environmental contaminants. This project supports the purchase of a high-resolution mass spectrometer, called the QExactive Orbitrap. The unique capabilities of the QExactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer allow for the separation of thousands of chemicals contained in a single sample and the identification of these chemicals at trace concentrations. This instrument will enable research and training on the measurement of organic contaminants in environmental samples (for example, in soil and water) and biological samples (for example, in blood and urine). The mass spectrometer also will help researchers assess changes in human metabolism in response to contaminant exposure.<br/><br/>This project brings together a diverse and active research team to determine the prevalence of contaminants in the environment and to advance our understanding of the effects of chemical exposures on human health. The specific research activities supported by the acquisition of a QExactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer include: (a) identifying metabolic alterations associated with exposure to environmental contaminants, (b) detecting contaminants in soil, water and air samples, (c) measuring the contaminant levels in humans, and (d) identifying biomarkers associated with adverse health outcomes. These activities will support research conducted by undergraduate and graduate students, who will receive personalized training related to instrument operation, data extraction, and analysis. The mass spectrometer will be available to both internal and external researchers and will be used to support environmental monitoring efforts affiliated with local schools, research centers and community organizations.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

1 2 3 299 300
About Exponent

Exponent is a modern business theme, that lets you build stunning high performance websites using a fully visual interface. Start with any of the demos below or build one on your own.

Get Started
Privacy Settings
We use cookies to enhance your experience while using our website. If you are using our Services via a browser you can restrict, block or remove cookies through your web browser settings. We also use content and scripts from third parties that may use tracking technologies. You can selectively provide your consent below to allow such third party embeds. For complete information about the cookies we use, data we collect and how we process them, please check our Privacy Policy
Youtube
Consent to display content from Youtube
Vimeo
Consent to display content from Vimeo
Google Maps
Consent to display content from Google
Spotify
Consent to display content from Spotify
Sound Cloud
Consent to display content from Sound