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RAPID: The Emergence and Evolution of Forced Migration Routes: Colby College

Nadia El-Shaarawi

[email protected]

With more than 65.3 million forced migrants worldwide, global displacement is at an all-time high. Most of the displaced are located in states adjacent to their countries of origin, primarily in the Middle East or Africa. One of the characteristics of contemporary displacement is that these countries of first asylum host the majority of refugees, who often live in limbo in camps or urban centers for years, while richer states keep refugees and migrants at arms' length through policies of deterrence and border control. However, from 2014 through 2016 more than one million migrants reached Europe via the Balkan land route, breaching "Fortress Europe" in unprecedented fashion. This mass migration has far reaching impacts for the stability of the European Union and the lives of millions of refugees and migrants. Yet, almost no empirical research has been conducted on the route, leaving open questions about how the route was forged and the role of refugees themselves in its creation. These questions can only be answered through ethnographic fieldwork while many of the key actors and sites remain in place along the route. This research takes place in the context of the largest global forced migration since World War II. Findings will be disseminated to aid organizations that explore and manage the causes, consequences, and complexities of mass migration. The research also fosters international scientific cooperation, and will train undergraduate students in methods of anthropological data collection and analysis.<br/><br/>This RAPID award supports fieldwork in Egypt, Greece, Serbia, and Germany – countries of departure, transit, and destination – to understand mobility along the Balkan route. The investigators, Drs. Nadia El-Shaarawi and Maple Razsa of Colby College, have longstanding relationships with migrants and refugees from the Middle East, as well as networks along the route, which will allow them to gain access to sites that might otherwise be clandestine and inaccessible. Through participant observation and interviews at sites that have been crucial to recent migrant mobility, sites where migrants and humanitarian workers come together, the researchers will study the forms of negotiation and struggle that made the route possible. Further, they will investigate how migrants experience and manage efforts to restrict their movement. A focus on the route itself, and the ways that refugees and migrants sustained mobility within networks along the route, will provide an empirical alternative to analyses of refugees as victims as well as a methodological tendency to study refugees in place. Such an approach will shed light on how migrant mobility itself is organized, sustained, and curtailed. While the ongoing crisis is unique in scale, an understanding of its social complexity can inform our knowledge of other, similar processes of migration and displacement in the U.S. and worldwide. With the number of refugees only increasing globally, displacement remains a topic of important social and political concern.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Doctoral Dissertation Research: Language Ideologies, Conservation Ideologies: Multilingualism and Collaboration in Transnational Environmental Work: University of California-Los Angeles

Paul Kroskrity

[email protected]

Environmental conservation efforts are often directed to regions of the world that have high levels of biodiversity. Such areas frequently have high levels of linguistic diversity, as well. This means that the difficulties of bringing about coordination and cooperation among diverse stakeholders are all too often compounded by miscommunications and misunderstandings resulting from linguistic failure. Successful conservation requires collaboration between scientists, educators, hunters, farmers, policy makers, and citizens, all of whom may have different goals and hold different beliefs about the environment. How is such collaboration possible when people must work across multiple languages to communicate? When is it successful? When and why does it fail? To answer these questions, University of California Los Angeles anthropology doctoral candidate Rosalie Edmonds, supervised by Dr. Paul V. Kroskrity, will conduct a close anthropological and linguistic investigation of communication and collaboration in a site that is both highly bio-diverse and deeply multi-lingual. Examining how varied stakeholders work together in this site will enable the creation of appropriate policies and practices for multi-lingual workplaces wherever they may occur.<br/><br/>The research will take place at the Limbe Wildlife Centre in Cameroon, Central Africa. This is an appropriate site for this investigation because in addition to English and French, Cameroon is home to 280 indigenous languages and the Centre is also visited by tourists who speak yet more languages. Despite these major lingustic challenges, the Centre has successfully rescued and rehabilitated animals for over twenty years, while also providing environmental education programming in local schools and rural communities, and serving as a tourist destination. In such a diverse context, what languages do people use to communicate with each other, and how do they resolve misunderstandings? The researcher will collect data by observing how people collaborate to solve environmental problems. She will record daily activities and natural language interactions; conduct interviews to explore people's beliefs about conservation work and perceptions of communication; and carry out participant observation to gain an insider understanding. By combining approaches from linguistic and environmental anthropology, this research document how people talk about, conceptualize, and perform conservation-related tasks in a multilingual environment, and what impact their talk has on how the work is accomplished. Clarifying how people communicate and work together in this situation will permit a new perspective on how global problems can be successfully negotiated in transnational, multilingual settings. Additionally, this research will develop practical materials to facilitate cross-cultural communication, including language guides, and a best practices workshop for communicating with people from different backgrounds.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Doctoral Dissertation Research: Death and Migration: Negotiating the Secular and Islam in Greece: Yale University

Marcia Inhorn

[email protected]

Doctoral student Christina Palivos (Yale University), with the guidance of Dr. M. Kamari Clarke, will undertake research on secularism, the state, and migration. As migrants with particular religious orientations move into secular and semi-secular democracies, they pose unanticipated challenges for both the theory and practice of modern state governance, as evidenced by the head scarf debate in France. Palivos will focus her research on the problems of burial of migrant Muslims who die while moving through Greece on their way to various destinations in Europe. In the past decade, the Evros River and the Aegean Sea along the eastern borders of Greece have become the main points of entry for approximately 90 per cent of migrants en route to Europe from the Middle East, Africa, South Asia, and Central Asia; many of them are Muslim. As the number of people crossing these bodies of water has grown, so has the number who die along the way, making Greece an excellent site to explore these issues. <br/><br/>Palivos will undertake eighteen months of ethnographic research amongst Muslim immigrants in three Greek locations: Athens, Lesvos, and Alexandroupolis. She will gather data on the different treatments that Muslim dead receive in Greece, including repatriation of remains to the country of origin, relocation of remains from to Thrace (the only Greek site with Muslim cemetaries), and local burial of unidentified remains in unmarked graves. Research methods will include participant observation, semi-structured interviews, burial case studies, repatriation case studies, and archival research. <br/><br/>This research is important because it will contribute to social scientific understanding of how the current economic crisis and attendant migration are together changing what it means to be a modern state subject. Her research also will fill gaps in what is known about the circulation of dead bodies within and across national borders and contribute to the ethnography of contemporary Greece. Supporting this research also supports the education of a graduate student.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Doctoral Dissertation Research: Grouping dynamics of lowland woolly monkeys: University of Texas at Austin

Anthony Di Fiore

[email protected]

Multilevel societies are some of the most complex social systems found in nature and have been identified in a wide array of taxa including elephants, cetaceans, birds, some species of non-human primates from Africa and Asia, and humans. However, little attention has been paid to possible examples of multilevel societies among New World primates. To resolve this gap and to provide additional insights into the causes and consequences of multilevel societies, the proposed research will focus on within- and between-group association patterns of woolly monkeys at the Tiputini Biodiversity Station (TBS) in Amazonian Ecuador. At TBS, woolly monkey groups may fission into small coordinated subgroups that persist for hours or even days, but similar to other multilevel societies, socially-cohesive groups may also coalesce into temporary supergroups that rest, travel, and forage together for several hours. Both of these patterns of behavior are reminiscent of human social systems. The project will contribute to long-term ecological, behavioral, and genetic datasets on an Amazonian research site of global biodiversity significance and will support the professional development of a female graduate student and research assistants.<br/><br/>Utilizing social network analysis, this project will quantitatively assess whether woolly monkeys form predictable grouping levels consistent with other multilevel societies. Additionally, behavioral data will be coupled with molecular genetic methods to investigate how range use, genetic relatedness, reproductive status, and attraction to others of the same age and/or sex class influence spatiotemporal associations. The proposed study represents one of the first investigations of the social dynamics of a New World primate from an explicitly multilevel perspective and promises to bring new insights to the understanding of sociality in humans and non-human primates. Additionally, by correlating genetic relatedness with social network structure, this project will provide a critical comparative dataset in which to examine the importance of kinship in maintaining affiliative relationships within and across social units.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Dissertation Research: The Application of Human Alu Diversity to A Model of Sudden Population Expansion: Pennsylvania State Univ University Park

Mark Stoneking

[email protected]

ABSTRACT P.I. Mark Stoneking/Steve Sherry SBR- 9318826 The last decade has seen the adoption of molecular technology in surveys of human genetic diversity. The purpose of these studies has been a clarification of the human evolutionary process. One study in particular, from Alan Wilson's lab, initiated a vigorous period of research on the information contint of phylogenetic trees, their underlying assumptions and their potential role in reliably inferring past evolutionary events. A second theoretical impetus centers on the effecto of ancient population growth on a type of molecular data: the distribution of pairwise mutational differences between individuals (called the mismatch distribution). Human mismatch distributions should preserva record of popuations expansions and spearations in the remote past. Expansion times have been identified for different populations from 30,000 to 180,000 years ago, and that significant expansion occurred during thelate middle and upper Paleolithic (40,000 to 125,000 years ago). The latest hypothesis to emerge from these sorts of studies center around a gradual Middle Paleolithic migration out of Africa followed by later regional episodes of rapid population growth during the Upper Paleolithic, although all inference is currently based on variation at a single genetic locus. This project will satisfy the theoretical needs for multiple, independent measures of population diversity, by analyzing Alu repeats. It will also further the technical capabilities of an excellent young scientist. *** Panthrojfried9318826.abs ! ! ! D H H ( Times New Roman Symbol & Arial D D D " h Tt Est E = Jonathan Friedlaender Jonathan Friedlaender

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

DISSERTATION RESEARCH: Nutritional mechanisms of population regulation in frugivorous primates: the effects of logging on redtail monkeys in Kibale National Park, Uganda: University of Florida

Colin Chapman

[email protected]

With primate populations losing 125,140 km2 of habitat annually most populations exist either in isolated, scattered protected areas, or in unprotected areas facing pressures from an increasing human population. Cercopithecine monkeys, a subfamily of small, frugivorous monkeys, are now found only in tiny forest fragments and a few national parks and forest reserves throughout West and East Africa. Scientists have recognized that little progress has been made towards providing scientific information that managers can use in the conservation of this subfamily. For example, while it has been suggested that weather, disease, infanticide, and food resources may all act to regulate primates populations, little is known about the specific conditions necessary for a species to survive and prosper. Food resources have been argued to be the most common limiting factor for most species, yet little is known about how food quantity and quality interact to determine the size and distribution of primate populations. This is particularly true for frugivorous primates since fruit, unlike leaves, is typically low in protein, minerals, and lipids, making it difficult to maintain a balanced diet. Therefore, this study will use redtail monkeys in Kibale National Park, Uganda to investigate the relationship between nutrient intake and availability, reproduction, and population densities. In addition, it will determine if nutritional factors are responsible for reduced population densities of redtail monkeys in heavily logged areas. Three focal groups have been identified in the heavily logged and unlogged areas to: 1) quantify and compare seasonal nutrient intake of groups between areas and to examine relationships between nutrient availability and intake, 2) compare the relationship between nutrient intake and reproduction between groups and correlate nutrient intake and availability with reproductive rates, timing, and infant survival, and 3) identify behavioral responses to changes in seasonal nutrient availability and intake. In addition, nutrient intake and behaviors will be correlated with group size across all six groups. Finally, existing data on redtail population densities and diets across six habitats within Kibale will be used to test for correlations between nutrient availability, key food resources, and redtail population densities. This will be the first study to explicitly examine the role of nutrition in population regulation of frugivorous primates and one of only a few to quantify the mechanisms by which habitat disturbance affects primates. The results of this study have implications to our understanding of the diets and nutrition of extinct and extant primates and hominids, the role of nutrition in population regulation, and the conservation and management of frugivore populations. By identifying the tree species needed to support high densities of redtail monkeys, current and future habitat restoration and protection plans will have the information necessary to design appropriate management strategies.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Planning Trip to Namibia to Establish Collaborative Researchon Cycling in Ephemeral Stream Systems of the Namib Desert: Individual Award

Mary Abrams

[email protected]

9321925 Abrams This is a proposal for a planning trip to the Desert Ecological Research Unit (DERU) at Gobabeb, Namibia, to finalize a collaborative research effort on resource cycling efficiency, for both water and nutrients, of several plant communities along the Kuiseb River near Gobabeb. The project will be integrated with an ongoing DERU study on ecosystem dynamics within ephemeral rivers and the associated Faidherbia stands. The collaboration will allow a more extensive study of the soil's role in resource cycling in arid ecosystems, using the Namib as a relatively undisturbed model. Data obtained during this trip will then be compared with existing studies in the United States. This project in ecosystem dynamics fulfills the program objective of advancing scientific knowledge by enabling leading experts in the United States and Namibia to combine complementary talents and conduct research in areas of strong mutual interest and competence. ***

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grant: Uncovering the First South Asians: The Prehistoric Colonization of Coastal Western India: Indiana University

Jeanne Sept

[email protected]

Under the direction of Dr. Jeanne Sept, Mr. August Costa will collect data for his doctoral dissertation. His research will address the questions: Who were the first South Asians and when did they settle the Indian subcontinent? Such are among the most critical unresolved problems in South Asian anthropology. The aim of this research is to provide an archaeological test of the southern dispersal hypothesis, which suggests that anatomically and behaviorally modern humans Homo sapiens first colonized South Asia via a coastal route from Africa more than 50,000 years ago. The southern dispersal gained popularity in recent years due to genetic studies suggesting an antiquity of up to 70,000 years for some South Asian populations. Direct fossil and archaeological evidence for this scenario, however is currently lacking in South Asia and recent studies have not targeted sites of the appropriate age. In sum, no one has yet tested this migration scenario by searching for dated evidence of modern humans along the South Asian coast. <br/><br/>Mr. Costa will address this issue by reinvestigating known (<125,000 year old) archaeological sites located along the coast of the Saurashtra peninsula in Gujarat, Western India. This setting is one of few places in South Asia where Stone Age sites have been dated. Moreover, Saurashtra is the only place in South Asia where coastal Stone Age sites are known. This study will be accomplished by 1) reevaluating known sites from Saurashtra; 2) surveying Saurashtra, for new coastal sites (>50,000 years old); and 3) assessing artifacts from the area for attributes indicative of modern humans (e.g. symbolism: jewelry and art, technological and economic innovations: complex stone and bone tools, long distance trade). In contrast to other Late Pleistocene populations (e.g. Neanderthals), present day humans' direct ancestors exhibited certain novel behaviors (e.g. artistic expression, complex hunting) which are often apparent from the archaeological record. If the southern dispersal hypothesis is correct, Mr. Costa should find evidence of anomalous behaviors compared to the norms of indigenous pre-modern South Asians which heralds the emergence of our species in the region. <br/><br/>This work will hopefully illuminate the origins of modern people in a nation, which constitutes a geographical missing link to the story of human evolution. If confirmed this research would show that early humans settled India tens of thousands of years before their arrival in Europe and radically alter notions of who the earliest Eurasians were. This study would also have important implications for the peopling of Australia, Southeast Asia and East Asia. This research will help promote meaningful scholarly dialogue and further the role of India in prehistoric studies. The results of this work will raise awareness about the archaeological record of India among Western archaeologists through peer-reviewed publications and presentations of this research at scholarly meetings. Finally, this research will form the foundation of Mr. Costa's future career in Stone Age archaeology by establishing a study area, lab resources and a network of Indian researchers with whom he can continue to work with in the future.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

DOCTORAL DISSERTATION RESEARCH: Language Socialization in a Fulbe Community (Maroua, Cameroon): University of California-Los Angeles

Elinor Ochs

[email protected]

Like many children in Africa and the rest of the world, Fulbe children in Maroua learn to use more than one language in their daily lives. Their linguistic repertoire comes to include Fulfulde, French, Arabic, and a simplified variety of Fulfulde. Thus, at an age when children are busy consolidating, re-organizing, and expanding their first language skills, Fulbe children encounter three new codes that they must also learn to use according to the linguistic and cultural rules of their families, schools, and peer groups. This project will investigate the development of communicative competence in multiple codes through a language socialization study. Over the course of nine months, or one school year, six children (three girls and three boys) will be observed and recorded as they learn to participate in routine language activities with more knowledgeable persons in home, neighborhood, public school, and koranic school settings. Data collection will be focused on three types of language routines: prompting, question-answer exchanges, and narrative. Annotated transcripts of these recordings will be complemented by participant observation and interviews with family members, teachers, and education officials. <br/><br/>The goal of this longitudinal, ethnographic study is to obtain greater understanding of how children growing up in a linguistically heterogeneous setting learn to use multiple languages and varieties thereof in culturally appropriate ways. More specifically, this study will document linguistic variation to which the children are routinely exposed, local language ideologies about languages and language varieties used in the community, and language socialization practices in the homes and schools of these children. Home and school language socialization practices will be compared and their impact on the children's development of communicative competence in Fulfulde, French, and Arabic will be examined.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Molecular Genetic Studies of Human Evolutionary History: University of Utah

Alan Rogers

[email protected]

ABSTRACT P.I. Alan Rogers SBR-9310105 During the past several years, a vigorous controversy has surrounded the origins of modern people, Homo sapiens. Much of this involves the interpretation of the new molecular genetic data (from mitochondrial DNA) originally marshalled in support of the "Eve" hypothesis for a relatively recent explosion of modern humans out of Africa, replacing archaic forms of humans around the globe (as opposed to the "multiregional" hypothesis of modern human origins, which sees evidence of modern human population relationships to older fossil finds – for example, a relation between modern Chinese and Pekin Man, who lived some 300,000 years ago). While this argument has generated a great deal of interest, it remains unresolved for a number of theoretical reasons. This project will provide a more rigorous test of the Eve vs. the Multiregional hypotheses by 1) formulating and testing quantitative models of modern human origins: 2) providing significance levels, confidence limits, and power analyses: and 3) using nuclear as well as mitochondrial DNA markers. The study will analyze materials from a sample comprising 75 representatives of each of three major continental populations. At least 150 mitochondrial DNA markers will be analyzed, and also at least 70 nuclear markers, including 9 on the Y chromosome. *** Panthrojfried9310105.abs # # 5 " " m5 " " 5 ' ' 5 * * 6 , , C6 : : y6 – – B N N B R;V ?V CV " ! ! ! D ( Times New Roman Symbol & Arial | | | Z " h G %M %L % p = Jonathan Friedlaender Jonathan Friedlaender

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