Category

ResearchXR

Home / ResearchXR
"The
AwardsMovement ThinkingResearchXR

Connecting Researchers in Sharing and Re-Use of Research Data and Software: University of California Office of the President

Sponsor: University of California, Office of the President, Oakland

Guenter Waibel

[email protected] (Principal Investigator)

ABSTRACT

Open science practices have gained widespread adoption, globally, with the help of federal funding and publisher policies, as well as the increasing visibility and growing awareness of the value of sharing work. This has been largely evident in light of the current COVID19 pandemic, with data sharing driving many areas of research, and open software resources must evolve to meet the needs of researchers. To meet the emerging demands and growing requirements of the research community who need support for both data and software sharing, Dryad and California Digital Library partnered in 2018 and Dryad and Zenodo partnered in 2019. These partnerships have allowed for the three organizations to re-think the data and publishing processes, explore ways for data curation, software preservation, and for output re-use to be tied together more seamlessly.

This project is a one-day, invitational workshop bringing together researchers and adjacent community members with diverse backgrounds to discuss needs, challenges, and priorities for re-using research data and software. The goal of the meeting is to develop pathways for consistent engagement with individuals and groups across the diverse scientific disciplines in order to be connected with and responsive to researchers’ needs and goals. Meeting topics include dataset re-use, deposition guidance, curation standards and requirements, integrations and relationships between data and code, and advocacy and adoption. The anticipated outputs are a set of requirements and needs to better enable data and software sharing and re-use.

InventXRLearn TechResearchXR

SusChEM: Design Principles Inspired by Symmetry for Controlling Singlet Fission in Structurally Well-Defined Covalent Dimers: University of Colorado at Boulder

Niels Damrauer

[email protected]

In this project funded by the Chemical Structure, Dynamic & Mechanism B Program of the Chemistry Division, Professors Niels H. Damrauer and Tarek Sammakia of the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Colorado Boulder are synthesizing new organic molecular systems that contain two chromophores (i.e., parts of the molecules that can absorb light) and using spectroscopy to explore their photophysics. The goal is to develop design rules for how the arrangement of the chromophores controls excited state reactivity following visible light photoexcitation. The particular reaction of interest is important in certain next-generation strategies to increase the efficiency of solar cells by limiting waste heat production that generally occurs when higher energy solar photons are absorbed. This proposal establishes a fundamental research program where students are exposed to a considerable breadth of ideas in synthesis, spectroscopy, and applications of electronic structure theory. A specific outreach effort in collaboration with local high school teachers is part of the funded work that aims to provide sophisticated but affordable spectroscopic tools and curriculum ideas to Colorado high school science programs. <br/><br/>Singlet fission is a photophysical phenomenon observed in certain organic materials wherein light absorption produces a spin-allowed singlet excited state that then non-radiatively converts to a pair of triplet excitations. If these triplets can be further transformed to charge carriers, it is possible to envision device scenarios where the solar spectrum is more efficiently utilized compared to devices in operation today. This research is predicated on the idea that molecular dimers are the fundamental unit for singlet fission and that they can provide a platform wherein synthetic manipulations that control the spatial juxtaposition and covalent interaction of chromophores are called upon to affect key photophysical rate constants. The most important design opportunity that is being tested relates to dimer point group symmetry and the idea that it can control the interference (constructive vs. destructive) of pathways in the quantum mechanical description of diabatic coupling for singlet fission. Other strategies will call on substituents to affect the relative energy of charge transfer states.

 

ResearchXR

Collaborative Learning in Cloud-based Virtual Computer Labs: Georgia State University Research Foundation, Inc.

Xiaolin Hu

[email protected]

Computer labs in which students work through assignments using specialized software and/or hardware play a critical role in computing education and in STEM education in general. Traditionally these computer labs have been carried out in computer centers on campus due to the need for specialized software and/or dedicated hardware. Collaborative labs help students to: (1) learn through experience, (2) leverage the perceptions of their learning partners, and (3) form their own opinions through social constructivism. The evidence to date is that collaborative labs consistently demonstrate positive effects on student achievement, self-esteem, and attitude toward learning. Advances in cloud computing and virtualization technologies enable students to complete labs on virtualized resources remotely through the Internet. However, while virtual computer labs provide anywhere, anytime, on-demand access to specialized software and hardware, the virtual workspaces to which students are assigned lack support for sharing, causing the collaborative aspect of learning to be lost. This project serves the national interest in producing a highly-qualified STEM workforce by developing and evaluating an environment that supports collaborative learning in cloud-based virtual computer labs.<br/><br/>The goal of this project is to integrate three models of virtual collaboration into a collaborative lab software tool: shared remote collaboration, virtual study rooms, and a virtual tutoring center. The environment will allow students to reserve virtual computers labs with multiple participants and will support remote real-time collaboration among the participants during a lab. The learning environment will be evaluated in computer science and other STEM discipline courses, and a virtual tutoring center for evaluation will be developed. The collaborative lab environment has the potential to significantly enhance students' collaborative learning in cloud-based virtual computer labs and benefit a wide range of universities and colleges that use virtual computer labs in education. It is expected to support collaborative learning in many STEM disciplines using virtual computer labs, benefitting traditional undergraduates as well as returning adult and distance learning students in both formal and informal settings. The collaborative lab software tool will be distributed as an open source project with all materials, designs, and source code available on a public web site for wide dissemination.

ResearchXR

Fort Peck Community College Eci Project: Fort Peck Community College

Wayne Two Bulls

[email protected]

A goal of the Tribal Colleges and Universities Program (TCUP) is to expand the STEM instructional and research capacities of specific institutions of higher education that serve the Nation's indigenous students. Expanding the STEM curricula offerings at these institutions expands the opportunities of their students to pursue challenging, rewarding careers in STEM fields, provides for research studies in areas that may be culturally significant, and encourages a community and generational appreciation for science and mathematics education. This project aligns directly with that goal, and moreover will inform the body of knowledge about strategies that attract, retain and graduate American Indian students in engineering. The Fort Peck Community College (FPCC) will develop a Pre-Engineering Associate of Science (AS) degree program that is transferrable to a bachelor-degree program in Engineering or a related STEM field. The overall purpose of this work is to increase the number of American Indian students pursuing STEM career pathways and achieving STEM degrees at FPCC. The project addresses a growing need for engineers in the region, some of which can be attributed to region's fossil fuel and renewable energy activities. It is important to increase the number of STEM majors and graduates at FPCC as a means to assist Assiniboine and Sioux tribal members to enter these high-growth sectors of the workforce. The project expands FPCC's degree offerings to include a new AS degree in Pre-Engineering to meet the growing need for engineers in the region, use promising strategies from emerging research on community colleges to improve instruction and student achievement in mathematics, build innovative supports to help students complete STEM associate degrees at FPCC and matriculate to STEM bachelor degrees, and expand the college's undergraduate research capacity in STEM fields.<br/><br/>The project builds on and advances research on promising practices from emerging community college research to promote increased student math proficiency and success in STEM fields through early assessment, curriculum redesign and targeted tutoring, expanded access to learning supports, faculty development, transition support from two-year to four-year degrees, and authentic research experiences. The project will address research questions regarding the effect of these promising strategies with American Indian students pursuing STEM degrees. The project is evaluated using a multi-dimensional approach that utilizes both qualitative and quantitative methods for collecting data. The evaluation plan is based on the tenets of a model for return on investment specifically designed for TCUs and based on the work of Phillips and Phillips. These measures and data elements will be used to evaluate how well the project is meeting its objectives to help the project leadership make data-driven decisions regarding project implementation and to derive research-based understanding of the impact of the strategies proposed. Formative data will be collected each semester to inform ongoing activities of the project and summative data will be used to make determinations regarding project successes, strengths, challenges, and recommendations for next steps.

ResearchXR

Collaborative Research: RAPID: Coronavirus persistence, transmission, and circulation in the environment: Stanford University

Alexandria Boehm

[email protected]

The novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak has rapidly spread from its beginning in Wuhan China. Currently, people have been infected on all continents except Antarctica. 2019-nCoV has some similarity to two other coronavirus outbreaks (SARS and MERS). Despite intensive study of SARS and MERS, we still lack a fundamental understanding of coronavirus behavior in the environment. Most importantly, we do not know how coronavirus spreads and how long it remains infective when exposed to sunlight. The goal of this RAPID research project is to address these questions to better predict transport. A secondary goal of this research project is to determine whether virus monitoring in wastewater treatment facilities can be used to catch outbreaks early. This will be achieved by monitoring coronavirus dynamics in wastewater treatment plants in the San Francisco Bay Area. The project team includes researchers with complimentary expertise on coronavirus transfer, inactivation, and detection. Successful completion of this research will better prepare scientists, engineers, and public health officials for future coronavirus outbreaks. Societal benefits include understanding coronavirus transmission in communities to decrease the time necessary to identify outbreaks to protect public health and national security.<br/><br/>A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has recently emerged from Wuhan China and its spread is causing international concern. This outbreak follows two other coronavirus outbreaks SARS and MERS. The initial cases of the SARS coronavirus outbreak spread via aerosolized fecal particles through the air ducts of the apartment complex. Early reports of 2019-nCoV suggest it too is excreted in feces. Despite intensive study of these past outbreaks, we still lack a fundamental understanding of enveloped virus particle transport in air and water infrastructure and their inactivation potential from solar radiation exposure. This information is critical to control transmission and predict persistence. A second important question is whether monitoring of viruses in wastewater treatment facilities can be used to catch virus circulation early in community outbreaks. The specific objectives of this project are to characterize how enveloped viruses are transferred from surfaces to skin, how coronaviruses are inactivated by solar and UV radiation, and by monitoring coronavirus dynamics in wastewater treatment plants in the San Francisco Bay Area. The project team includes researchers with complimentary expertise on virus transfer from skin to surfaces, coronavirus detection methods, and viral photoinactivation. The work will be performed at the Codiga Water Resource Recovery Center in Santa Clara County where two of the initial 2019-nCoV cases have been observed in the USA. Results from this research will better prepare scientists, engineers, and public health officials for future coronavirus outbreaks. It will provide critical information on endemic coronavirus circulation and provide a framework for capturing the outbreak dynamics of a novel virus in a community. Further, the enveloped virus transfer study will help scientists understand if and how the transfer of enveloped viruses differs from non-enveloped viruses. Broader benefits to society include understanding when and how transmission may occur in communities; information that is critical to decreasing the time necessary to identify viral disease outbreaks to protect public health and national security.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

ResearchXR

Core Support for the Board on Environmental Change and Society (BECS) of the National Academies: National Academy of Sciences

Toby Warden

[email protected]

This award will continue support for core operations of the Board on Environmental Change and Society (BECS) of the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences. This board has functioned under its current and previous names since 1989 to advance science and environmental decision making by promoting integrated analysis of the human interactions with the natural environment. BECS will work with government agencies and other sponsors build understanding of human interactions with the biophysical environment; contribute to the development of a coherent field of scientific endeavor in this area; integrate social and behavioral science research into environmental science and policy; advance the behavioral, social, and decision sciences; and provide benefits to society through the application of these sciences to manage human-environment interactions. BECS will evaluate research simultaneously from the perspectives of the natural and social sciences with a focus on advancing generalizable knowledge to assist decision makers and improve the quality of practices at the federal, state, and local levels. BECS also will facilitate the development of an interdisciplinary research community in response to an increased realization that global environmental issues require enhanced knowledge based on social science research. Because it is responsive to and anticipatory in the advancement of cutting-edge science and application to policy to identifying innovative solutions to improve societal wellbeing, BECS serves as a national resource for the advancement of use-inspired science to inform decision makers, stakeholders, and communities addressing a myriad of environmental change challenges and opportunities.<br/><br/>The Board on Environmental Change and Society functions as the National Academies' primary unit for advancing research on the interactions between human activities and the environment by providing a forum for linking the social and natural sciences in research, planning, and decision making. BECS will strive to integrate social, behavioral, and natural science knowledge to address emerging scientific and governmental concerns through workshops, consensus studies, semi-annual meetings, symposia, and a variety of outreach mechanisms. Over the period to be supported with this award, BECS will develop and oversee activities, engage a greater breadth of stakeholders and serve as a focal point toward which federal agencies and other governmental and non-governmental decision makers look to for integrated, trans-disciplinary approaches to cross cutting environmental challenges and opportunities. BECS aims to advance new lines of interdisciplinary research on topics at the intersection of human and natural systems such as innovation in energy transitions and the social implications of such transitions; the nexus between food, energy, and water; building resilient and low-carbon cities; and shifts in migration under conditions of environmental change.

ResearchXR

TIM Protein-Mediated Ebola Virus-Host Cell Adhesion: Experiments and Models: Lehigh University

Anand Jagota

[email protected]

Viruses cause diseases ranging from the common cold to the deadly and highly infectious Ebola disease. Their "modus operandi" is to enter healthy cells, often like a Trojan Horse, by hijacking normal physiological processes, tricking the cell to let them in. For this reason, a principal difficulty in designing therapies against viruses lies in the fact that attempts to stop them from entering a cell are also likely to affect normal physiological processes. For example, the Ebola virus infects healthy cells by disguising itself as debris (wastes or remains) from dead cells. Healthy cells whose normal function is to clear up this debris mistakenly take up Ebola and are thus infected. But there are always some differences between a virus and debris particles suggesting that, if studied carefully, it might be possible to design therapies that can block specific virus entry while leaving normal physiological processes essentially intact. In order to be successful in this attempt, it is necessary to understand virus uptake processes in quantitative detail both experimentally and theoretically, and particularly the latter, which is the main goal of this project. Building on separate studies that use microscope based technologies to measure binding forces between molecules, the focus of this project is to develop understanding of the behavior of collections of adhesion molecules (proteins on cell surfaces that cause cells to bind to other cells or particles), and ultimately to develop a predictive model for how an entire virus particle attaches to a cell prior to its uptake. An important part of this work is modeling the deformation of virus and cell particles in order to quantitatively measure their properties. If successful, this project will contribute to establishing an experimentally validated, quantitative connection between biology based models for virus entry into cells and the properties of the virus and the cell. The interdisciplinary nature of this research program will provide an excellent educational and research opportunity for graduate and undergraduate students. Working with the Da Vinci Science Center in Allentown, the investigators will design a new exhibit demonstrating the physical and mechanical details of virus uptake and how its study could lead to potential therapies or a cure. (The Da Vinci Science Center is an independent non-profit organization that promotes hands-on science learning through inquiry, highlights vibrant and important career opportunities in science available to every young person, and encourages all people to be curious and creative.) <br/><br/>The goal of this project is to establish an experimentally informed predictive and quantitative model of the Ebola Virus (EBOV)-host cell interactions at the molecular through single-virus levels. While EBOV-host cell attachment has been shown to depend critically on the molecular biophysics of interaction between receptors on the cell surface and the outer coat of the virus, the quantitative understanding essential for guiding the development of therapies that would prevent EBOV from attaching to, and thus from entering a cell, is completely lacking. Recent work has established the importance of TIM family proteins and the geometry and mechanical properties of its mucin-like stalk domain (MLD). Building on these recent findings, further progress can be made by using experimental and theoretical molecular biophysics to uncover a quantitative understanding of the molecular, cellular, and biophysical mechanisms of EBOV attachment to a host cell. Building on separate studies that utilize single-molecule force spectroscopy to characterize experimentally how TIM family proteins interact with EBOV, this project will develop biophysical models that show how single-molecule biomechanical properties, and how the properties of the MLD, such as its length, rigidity, and charge density, control TIM mediated cellular/viral membrane adhesion and engulfment. The model will be developed in three phases. 1) At the Intermolecular Scale, the adhesion between a single TIM-1 and the viral membrane is studied using coarse-grained Brownian Dynamics Models to predict interaction potentials. 2) At the Intermediate Scale, the glycocalyx will be added to the cell surface and glycoproteins will be added on the virus surface to establish the role of the mechanical properties of the MLD stalk, using a course grained model solved with Brownian Dynamics at 300K. 3) At the Mechanics of Whole Virus and Internalization Scale, findings at the Intermolecular and Intermediate Scales will be incorporated at the scale of the viral particles and deformable membranes will be added, with the goal of describing the virus adhesion process, including effects due to membrane bending and tension, using a combination of semi-analytic models and coarse-grained models. The project will thus elucidate quantitatively – for the first time – the biophysical mechanism of EBOV-host cell interaction, providing potential new targets for antiviral drug development. While the focus of the focus of this project is on the EBOV, the approach taken will be applicable to other related virus-host cell interactions.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

ResearchXR

RAPID: Prototype of a medical mask using a novel antimicrobial / antiviral biofilter material: West Virginia University Research Corporation

Gloria Oporto

[email protected]

During the current coronavirus pandemic, there is a shortage of masks that are part of personal protective equipment used by health care workers. This shortage is due to two reasons: (i) supply has been outstripped by unprecedented demand, and (ii) current masks are meant to be used only once and then discarded. Critically, the lack of proper and effective personal protective equipment poses a significant risk to healthcare workers that are treating and caring for COVID19 patients. This RAPID project seeks to remedy these issues by fabricating novel and improved filters using polymers derived from natural sources (agriculture and forestry) that are compostable. These filters would be removable, renewable, and reusable. Furthermore, these filters would incorporate small-sized antimicrobial/antiviral copper particles, which enhance the effectiveness of masks beyond current capabilities. This project will rapidly develop and optimize the fabrication of these filters. Developed filters will be tested to demonstrate that they have all the properties required for masks to be worn by medical personnel. If the research is successful, it will result in the development of a reusable medical mask that is superior to the single-use mask currently in use. Finally, the project will promote collaborations across different fields such as wood science, health science, engineering, chemistry and biology which, in turn, will support training and education of students in these fields.<br/><br/>The overarching objective of this RAPID research project is to develop a prototype for a reusable and environmentally friendly biofilter with antimicrobial and antiviral properties to be used as a filtering facepiece respirator. This objective will be attained with the use of bio-nanocomposites of polylactic acid in combination with cellulose nanofibrils and coated with copper nanoparticles. The result will represent improvements on current medical masks, including the design, fabrication processing and material properties. Process development will involve mixing cellulose nanofibrils into polylactic acid and converting the compounded material into filaments coated with copper nanoparticles, rendering the material suitable for additive manufacturing of the reusable biofilter. The copper nanoparticles will endow the filter with antimicrobial and antiviral properties, while the properly-dispersed nanocellulose will help to retain the microorganisms and also provide mechanical integrity. It is expected that masks using these filters will have the ability to both prevent penetration by microorganisms (having a diameter as small as 50 nm) and to kill many infectious agents as well. Rejuvenation of the filter will be done with the help of mild heat treatment. The structure and properties of the filters will be determined using standardized tests. The ability to compost polylactic acid will be helpful in the eventual disposal of the filter. If successful, the research will result in the development of a reusable respirator mask that is superior to the present-day mask. This will help to ease the shortage of personal protective equipment for health care workers and give them the best possible protection against microbial threats such as COVID19. Finally, the successful completion of the project will advance the knowledge and understanding of bio-nanocomposite components compatibility, and their specific effects on the final material performance within the context of engineering and technology education. This new knowledge will be generated across different fields such as wood science, health science, engineering, chemistry and biology. The proposed work will support synergies among these disciplines and foster training and education of students in these fields.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

ResearchXR

Effects of Victimization on Engagement and Expression: University of Arizona

Jennifer Carlson

[email protected]

This project examines the effect of severe crime victimization on the mobilization of friends and family. Specifically, it investigates why some of these individuals mobilize and others do not and for those who do, why they mobilize in the way that they do. Prior research shows that victimization of a friend or family member affects public activity. In this project, interviews with such individuals are used to research how these events have affected their psychological, social, and public lives. Findings will be useful to social service agencies, decision makers, and others seeking to improve outcomes in this area.<br/><br/>Hypotheses that the forms of victimization will affect responses, conditional on demographic characteristics, will be investigated by identifying 36 cases of victimization and interviewing 5 to 15 individuals per case. These interviews will be spread across three different categories of victimization in two locations with different cultures. The interviews will be analyzed to engage questions regarding why people participate in the movements they do, the social psychological precursors to and consequences of public engagement, and the relationship between public culture and public outcomes. In doing so, the project will lay intellectual groundwork for scholars interested in analyzing the import of victimization, including but extending beyond the victimization investigated here.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

ResearchXR

RAPID: Hydrologic control on SARS-CoV-2 transfer to streams: Yale University

Peter Raymond

[email protected]

With the novel coronavirus causing major disruptions globally, there is an immediate need to understand sources of exposure, environmental prevalence and approaches for mitigation of transmission. While most work has focused on direct human-to-human transmission or indirect transmission indoors, environmental exposure could play an important role. Work on past Coronaviruses and other pathogenic viruses has demonstrated that they can reach streams and rivers from wastewater inputs, particularly during storm events. Evidence shows that the novel coronavirus, also known as SARS-Cov-2, is present in sewage and coronaviruses can survive in water systems for days. This study will advance understanding of SARS-CoV-2 transfer to and along stream networks in an urban region impacted by the virus. This project will survey streams and rivers in areas of Connecticut impacted by the virus to test for the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 and assess mechanisms for the spread of the virus in the environment. The project will further train and prepare students on rapid-response research under challenging circumstances. <br/><br/>A primary objective of this work is to understand the transfer of SARS-CoV-2 to stream networks in a region impacted by the virus. In particular, it is hypothesized that major rain events leading to combined sewer overflow (CSO) and Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) overflow will have peak concentrations of SARS-CoV-2. The human or ecological impact of any particular pathogen will thus have the potential to be elevated during these periods of high transfer. Samples will be collected from two different types of systems. The first set will be from a number of smaller streams/rivers to assess transfers to the stream network. These streams and rivers will be chosen based on a history of CSO and WWTP overflow events. Sampling of a forested area will be included as a control for this set of sites. The second set of sites will be on the mainstem of the Connecticut River, which, like many rivers worldwide, has an urban center (Hartford/Springfield) flanking the river near the coast. This common geography leads to a large input of WWTP effluent on the mainstem of the river, with a short travel distance to the coast. Samples from the Connecticut River will be collected upstream of this urban center, within the city center, and downstream of any urban influence. Samples will be mostly collected during large hydrologic events (1-2 inches of precipitation) in the smaller stream/river systems over the next 2-3 months, but more frequently along the Connecticut River main-stem sites. Samples will be analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 using qPCR, DNA and RNA bacteriophages and viruses, chemical markers of WWTP and CSO effluent and a standard suite of standard water quality parameters to document the in-situ conditions during collection. This proposal integrates an interdisciplinary team that will broaden our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 prevalence under a hydrologic framework. The project will support five students across four departments, thus providing interdisciplinary training related to rapid response research and science.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

1 2 3 608 609
About Exponent

Exponent is a modern business theme, that lets you build stunning high performance websites using a fully visual interface. Start with any of the demos below or build one on your own.

Get Started
Privacy Settings
We use cookies to enhance your experience while using our website. If you are using our Services via a browser you can restrict, block or remove cookies through your web browser settings. We also use content and scripts from third parties that may use tracking technologies. You can selectively provide your consent below to allow such third party embeds. For complete information about the cookies we use, data we collect and how we process them, please check our Privacy Policy
Youtube
Consent to display content from Youtube
Vimeo
Consent to display content from Vimeo
Google Maps
Consent to display content from Google
Spotify
Consent to display content from Spotify
Sound Cloud
Consent to display content from Sound