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Collaborative Research: Understanding the hydrologic consequences of urban irrigation across the U.S.: University of California-Riverside

George Jenerette

[email protected]

All components of the water cycle are altered by human activities in cities, and the impacts of these changes on urban water and climate are still poorly understood. Urbanization affects climate, the amount of water in soil (soil moisture), and the type and amount of vegetation across the landscape. All of these factors strongly impact evapotranspiration (ET): the flux of water from land to the atmosphere. Urban ET is poorly predicted by hydrologic models that do not adequately represent human actions, such as irrigation. Yet, urban irrigation can have large effects on climate, soil moisture, and plant growth and survival. This study addresses the extent to which ET is limited by soil moisture, atmospheric water demand (a function of humidity and air temperature), or the density and distribution of vegetation within and across U.S. cities. Measurements will be made in three urban regions: Los Angeles, CA (a semi-arid city where irrigation has been declining due to drought response policy), Salt Lake City, UT (semi-arid but still heavily irrigated), and Tallahassee, FL (high rainfall and very high urban tree cover). These cities represent urban settings with different water cycle components. This project will advance knowledge and understanding of urban ET, improve basic climate and water cycle models, and to contribute to efficient water management in cities and urban landscapes. <br/><br/>Urban hydrologic data are still sparse relative to observations in natural and agricultural systems. To advance a generalizable understanding of urban hydrology, it is necessary to explore categorizable differences within and across cities in the balance of water supply (soil moisture as supplied by both irrigation and precipitation), plant demand for water uptake (as determined by the magnitude, distribution, and composition of leaf area), and atmospheric evaporative demand (net radiation and vapor pressure deficit). The project will examine similarities and differences in these fluxes within and across cities by quantifying irrigation efficiency, its variability, and its key drivers. The contribution of each component of the soil-plant-atmosphere system to ET fluxes is likely to vary in mesic vs. arid/semi-arid climates and according to local irrigation practices as well as urbanization processes that influence land and vegetative cover. By sampling cities that are hypothesized to span different combinations and ranges of irrigation practices and likely limits on urban soil moisture, vapor pressure deficit, and ET, the investigators will test a general framework that can be applied beyond these specific cities and measurement sites. Ultimately, this project will use the extensive datasets collected in this study for advancing mechanistic models of urban landscape ET as an alternative to empirical crop and landscape coefficient approaches. The results will be disseminated to stakeholders and extension specialists who are focused on improving turfgrass management, outdoor water management, and urban water policy. The investigators will also leverage programs for recruiting and retaining undergraduate and graduate students from under-represented groups to build a diverse, interdisciplinary team aimed at broadening participation in STEM.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

ResearchXR

RAPID: Coronavirus Risk Communication: How Age and Communication Format Affect Risk Perception and Behaviors: University of Washington

Sonia Savelli

[email protected]

On March 11, 2020 the coronavirus officially became a global pandemic. In the United States the suggestion to practice ?social distancing? was replaced by official ?stay at home? orders from at least 30 states, and numerous counties and cities. Despite these official orders, people continued to gather in outdoor spaces and in private. Why do they do so? Are they ?risk seeking? in the sense that they understand the risk but have decided to take it anyway? Or do they misunderstand the risk of contracting the disease, becoming seriously ill, or spreading it to others? Given the complexity and variability of the information about coronavirus available to the public, misunderstandings are likely. It may be difficult for individuals to assess their own risk of contracting and/or dying from the disease, and particularly difficult to understand the risk of passing it on to others. Nonetheless, one thing is clear: older people are at a greater risk for fatality. The risk for contracting the disease, however, appears to be more evenly distributed across age groups. It is possible that people use an unconscious simplifying strategy focusing on the more dramatic and widely publicized death rates and assume that if they are younger, all risks, including those that they pose to others, are less. The first goal of this project is to assess the perceived risks associated with coronavirus across age groups and determine how risk perception impacts the decisions people make. The second goal is to design and test risk expressions that are understandable to members of the public. Thus, this project makes significant contributions to our understanding of how people make risky decisions in context, based on complex risk information, as well as to the development of communication strategies tailored for different users.<br/> <br/>Successful risk communication strategies depend upon first understanding how people process complex risk information. In the context of the coronavirus, decision makers must take into account both the risk to themselves as well as the risk to others they may infect if they contract the coronavirus. There are numerous cognitive issues associated with this process that at present are not well understood. In particular, how do people understand related but differing risk estimates? How do they use that information to make precautionary decisions that impact themselves as well as others? This project conducts a series of online studies to determine how people perceive coronavirus risks, separately and in combination, as well as how risk perception impacts their precautionary decisions. Perhaps more importantly, based on preliminary surveys, understandable risk communication expressions are developed and tested experimentally to establish causal links between information expression and risk perception, trust, and decisions. Finally, using a few relevant individual difference measures, the researchers determine whether specific abilities are necessary to process complex numeric risk expressions and whether simplified expressions are better in some cases. The results of this work provide invaluable advice with the potential to save lives. This research can inform best practices in risk communication that have important implications for communicating risks in future outbreaks. Understanding how best to communicate risks to the public and whether communication should be tailored to specific subgroups is critical to avoiding future pandemics.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

ResearchXR

RAPID: Using a professional code of ethics to promote ethical and responsible research: West Virginia University Research Corporation

Trisha Phillips

[email protected]

A scientific society?s code of ethics is an important symbol of the discipline?s standards, values, and commitments. This project aims to understand whether and in what way a scientific society?s code of ethics influences its disciplinary culture and individual behaviors related to ethical and responsible research. On April 16, 2020, the American Political Science Association announced significant changes to the Association?s code of ethics, a document formally titled A Guide to Professional Ethics in Political Science. This change provides an excellent opportunity to conduct a ?natural experiment? to study the relationship between a professional association?s code of ethics and research integrity. This project takes seven baseline measurements relating to ethics and research integrity among APSA members, including their perceptions, publication practices, and graduate student education in research ethics, so that follow up measurements can detect whether these indicators of research integrity changed after the association changed its code of ethics. Findings will be broadly disseminated to better enable scholars and academic leaders to promote the responsible and ethical conduct of research. <br/><br/>By collecting baseline data before changes are made to the ethics code of a scientific society, this project responds to three research questions: (1) How does a professional code of ethics influence the disciplinary climate of research integrity? (2) How does a professional code of ethics influence publication and dissemination practices related to research integrity? (3) How does a professional code of ethics influence instruction in the responsible and ethical conduct of research? Scholars have established that honor codes are effective influencing factors for academic integrity in undergraduate student populations, but little is known about whether and in what way codes of ethics can influence research integrity in academic and professional populations. Collecting baseline data related to: (1) member perceptions of disciplinary climate of research integrity; (2) author?s awareness of ethical norms and expectations; (3) submission requirements for journals; (4) author?s disclosure of ethical issues; (5) attention to ethical issues in publication and presentation forums; (6) RECR educational programming; and (7) RECR resources allows the effects of this change to be identified and measured. Understanding the effects of changing codes of ethics yields broader insights into the influencing power of ethical codes, and the causal and influencing factors for desirable and undesirable research practices. This knowledge will help enable academic and professional leaders cultivate cultures of integrity and achieve greater impact when revising their code of ethics in the future.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

ResearchXR

Collaborative Proposal: MSB-FRA: A macrosystems ecology framework for continental-scale prediction and understanding of lakes: Michigan State University

Patricia Soranno

[email protected]

Lakes are recognized as hotspots for processing carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus and thus are critical for understanding how human activities affect global cycles of these essential nutrients. However, to estimate the total contribution of lakes in the United States to these global cycles, they have to rely on measurements from a small number of well-studied lakes because scientists do not have the resources to study every lake all the time. The resulting extrapolations to estimate global cycles and predict future change have many uncertainties. Consequently, it is important to understand where and when information from small subsets of lakes can be accurately applied to the wide variety of lake types and landscape settings across the continental United States. To improve future extrapolation efforts and to understand the role of lakes in global nutrient cycles, this award will build an unprecedented database that combines nutrient measurements from existing government and university monitoring programs (for about 15,000 lakes) with lake and landscape characteristics from national publicly-available digital maps for all lakes in the continental United States (about 130,000 lakes). Using this novel and unprecedented database, three components will be studied that are needed to determine the contribution of lakes to continental nutrient cycles. First, lake nutrients will be studied jointly rather than individually to provide insights into the conditions in which cycles are linked or not, which will help to reduce uncertainty in continental estimates of lake nutrients. Second, as scientists expand their studies from a few lakes to the entire continent, the relationships between lake nutrients and their landscape controls can differ in strength and even direction among different regions, further contributing to uncertainties in continental understanding of lake nutrient cycles. Finally, compiling data on every lake increases the chance of discovering novel environmental conditions that have not previously been studied, yet may play important roles in continental-scale nutrient cycles. Through these important research activities, scientists will increase their confidence in estimating the effects of lakes on global cycles. This award contributes to the broader scientific community because the database will be made publicly-available in a timely manner to complement the National Ecological Observatory program and to developing open-source advanced computer tools for analyzing large datasets for this and other big-data studies. In addition, the diverse team (by gender, career-level, and discipline) will train and mentor early-career scientists in interdisciplinary, team-based, and data-intensive science to be leaders in addressing challenging questions such as how future land use intensification and changes in global climate will affect lakes and the services they provide. <br/><br/>Ecosystems, such as lakes, are complex, heterogeneous, and strongly influenced by their ecological context?environmental or anthropogenic factors that operate at multiple scales. This complexity makes extrapolating site-level estimates of ecological services, state, and function challenging. The overarching goal of this research is to understand and predict patterns in the three major nutrients for all continental US lakes to inform estimates of lake contributions to continental and global cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon. The proposed work will address three important phenomena that limit scientists? ability to extrapolate freshwater nutrients at continental scales. (1) Because cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon in inland water interact with each other and are often affected by similar controls, they should be considered as linked, not isolated. (2) As studies expand to view the whole continent, interactions between driver variables at different scales (cross-scale interactions) also increase. (3) A hallmark of the Anthropocene is the rise of novelty in ecosystems–new environmental conditions or new combinations of conditions. Such novelty may confound extrapolation in unknown ways. The proposed research is an unprecedented effort that will: address these important phenomena, develop new continental-scale data products for aquatic macrosystems ecology, and contribute novel, data-intensive analytical methods from computer science and statistics. This award will answer five research questions related to the above phenomena using two approaches. First, funds will be used to build a large, integrated database of all lakes in the continental United States (called LAGOS-US) that includes measures of in situ nutrients collected from tens of thousands of lakes, and ecological-context metrics calculated for all 130,000 continental lakes using geographic information systems and remote sensing datasets. Second, analyses of the database will be conducted for each research question using existing and novel statistical and computer science analytical tools to improve macrosystems ecology knowledge of freshwater nutrients. This award will complement the National Ecological Observatory strengths by providing data for a broader range of aquatic ecosystems and by providing the ecological context for the six continental Observatory lake sites. This award will result in four major intellectual contributions to macrosystems ecology. (1) The identification of regions where coupling and decoupling of nutrients occur, leading to a more comprehensive understanding of relationships between ecological context drivers and linked nutrient cycles. (2) Increased understanding of the types and spatial structure of ecological contexts that are more likely to lead to cross-scale interactions. (3) The identification of the role that novelty in ecological context plays in continental-scale predictions. (4) The transformation of understanding of the ecological contexts that influence biogeochemical cycles at macroscales and lake contributions to these cycles. Given the likely prevalence of such phenomena in other macrosystems, the results will be transferable to other ecosystem types, and more broadly to macrosystems ecology.

ResearchXR

Complex Effects of Climate Change on Nature Reserve Networks at Macroscales: Michigan State University

Jianguo Liu

[email protected]

Protected areas such as nature reserves have been a major cornerstone of biodiversity conservation. However, human activities have compromised conservation goals in many nature reserves, and climate change poses additional threats to their long-term viability and success. Although some studies have analyzed climate change impacts on the conservation effectiveness of nature reserves, most have focused on individual nature reserves in localized regions. Funding is provided to assess the changes in species distribution within and across networks of nature reserves in broad geographic regions, and to analyze the effects of climate change on the long-term survival of plant and animal species. An exceptional setting for achieving the objectives is the globally important forested macrosystem that is the historical geographic range of the world-famous endangered giant panda (2.2 million km2 across 19 provinces of China). Across this vast macrosystem there are currently 63 panda reserves and over 1,000 reserves for other purposes, which together constitute a reserve meta-network (network of networks). Using state-of-the-art climate change projections, remote sensing techniques, meta-uncertainty analyses, and species distribution models, a multi-disciplinary and international team of researchers will analyze climate change impacts on conservation effectiveness of this meta-network of reserves as well as current and future geographic distribution of the panda and around 30 bamboo species that comprise 99% of its diet. <br/><br/>This project will lead to transformative and significant outcomes, such as testing and extending two fundamental theories (niche theory and connectivity theory) at macroscales. It will also generate powerful and lasting broader impacts. Through active engagement with stakeholders, the research team will use project results to develop and evaluate effective and efficient conservation strategies of global importance in the context of climate change. Improving conservation strategies for a well-known charismatic endangered species will help to increase the public awareness of the potential climate change impacts on biodiversity, and encourage public engagement on climate change mitigation and adaptation. Through strategic communication and hands-on workshops, the results and methods will be widely disseminated to inspire others to analyze the impacts of climate change on other species and other nature reserve networks around the world. Furthermore, the project will train undergraduate and graduate students as well as post-doctoral scholars, who will gain broad and deep knowledge and learn important skills to become future visionary leaders and globally-engaged researchers who can creatively address future challenges to biodiversity research and conservation.

ResearchXR

Collaborative Proposal: MSB-FRA: Causes, consequences, and cross-scale linkages of environment-driven phenological mismatch across three trophic levels: Georgetown University

Leslie Ries

[email protected]

The timing and synchrony of seasonal events presents real challenges in the natural world. Migratory birds coordinate their departure from wintering grounds in Central or South America to arrive at North American breeding grounds at just the right time. Too early and they risk experiencing severe weather from late frosts or blizzards. Too late and they risk missing the peak in early spring insects that they depend on to successfully raise offspring. For their part, insects such as butterflies also benefit when their emergence coincides with the springtime flush of new plant growth. The timing of spring has been shifting earlier in recent years, and this raises the possibility of mismatches in spring timing between birds, insects, and plants. A few local scale studies have suggested that such mismatches may be responsible for long-term population declines for some species, but the extent of this problem, especially over large areas remains unknown. In this project, the research team will combine information on springtime weather, satellite imagery on plant emergence, and multiple large-scale citizen science data on birds, butterflies, and caterpillars to perform a comprehensive evaluation of mismatches in seasonal timing between interacting species. This work is critical for understanding the potential impacts of continued shifts in seasonality on living systems. The work will also engage K-college students and the public through a new citizen science program, educational units, and outreach events focused on learning about the timing of seasonal changes. <br/> <br/>The proposed research will be the first attempt to examine phenological mismatch across three trophic levels at a semi-continental extent. Local-scale studies have documented specific instances of phenological mismatch but fail to inform how mismatch consequences propagate across spatial, temporal, or trophic scales. Birds and butterflies provide the most expansive, long-term and detailed macroecological data sets on distribution, diversity, and demography. The project will unite multiple large-scale citizen science datasets for these taxa with targeted field data collection, and remotely-sensed climate and vegetation data layers, to examine the cross-scale and multi-trophic interactions that connect shifting thermal environments, phenological mismatch, and fitness consequences. This will be accomplished by: (1) assembling and uniting continental and regional monitoring and citizen-science databases for Lepidoptera and birds; (2) building spatio-temporal models in order to assess drivers of phenology, calculate direct metrics of phenological mismatch across trophic levels, and evaluate fitness and population consequences of those mismatches; and (3) testing the ability of generated models to predict phenology and population trends for focal birds and Lepidoptera across eastern North America as a function of tri-trophic phenological mismatch. Taking a macro-scale perspective on phenological mismatch is critical for understanding the range-wide impacts of sustained trends in seasonal timing. In addition to answering critical research questions on phenological mismatch the team will extend the impacts of their work through both specific training opportunities and broad-based education and outreach efforts.

ResearchXR

Collaborative Research: Aerodynamic-aeroacoustic performance of poroelastic wings inspired by the silent plumage of owls: Pennsylvania State Univ University Park

Michael Krane

[email protected]

Owls are extraordinary predators that are able to suppress their aerodynamic noise generation and achieve effectively silent flight over a broad frequency range, which includes the sensitive hearing ranges of owls, their prey, and humans. The poroelastic fringe adaptation of owls is believed to contribute to this broadband noise suppression by modifying the trailing-edge noise mechanism that sets the minimum noise level of many engineering designs, such as computer fans, propulsors, commercial airframes, and wind turbines. Many applications for which weaker edge noise is sought are also constrained by, for example, aerodynamic performance or stability metrics related to the integrated pressure across these fluid-loaded structures (e.g., lift or moment). Furthermore, it is clear that changes to the trailing-edge geometry and compliance to improve acoustic performance should entail an aerodynamic performance penalty. In this scenario, the unsteady acoustic and hydrodynamic fields must be considered together. At present, guidance towards a more complete understanding of their interaction for finite-chord and finite-span structures with variable porous and elastic properties is lacking. Furthermore, there is little empirical support for the predicted aerodynamic and aeroacoustic effects of poroelastic edges. The principal aim of this project is to address these shortcomings through a series of analytical and numerical model problems coordinated with experimental measurement to elucidate the unsteady loading and noise generation of thin fluid-loaded structures with graded poroelastic properties. <br/><br/>This project addresses the above technical shortcomings through an interactive theoretical-experimental program that distinguishes itself in no fewer than three ways: (i) construction of analytical and numerical frameworks to predict turbulence noise generation by graded poroelastic structures, from first principles; (ii) experimental validation of acoustic scaling laws for poroelastic edges, without background flow noise; and (iii) development of a glider to measure wing noise on the fly in a manner consistent with how owls hear their self-noise. The modeling and validation efforts aim to transform a biologically-inspired noise solution into a rational paradigm for passive aerodynamic noise control in low-speed flows and to create an experimental platform for future bionic owl noise-reduction studies. This project will also include K-12 educational outreach with the DaVinci Science Center (Allentown, PA), as well as integrate undergraduate research involvement through the Lehigh Biosystems Dynamics Summer Institute (in partnership with Northampton Community College) and through a design-build-fly competition between Lehigh and Penn State.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

ResearchXR

Determining how Organic Matter is Stabilized using a Unique Set of Soil Samples from across the U.S.: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Brian Strahm

[email protected]

Soil organic matter (SOM) is a critical linkage among many ecosystem services that sustain our society and life on Earth. It is the primary food source for microbes and the principal storehouse of water necessary for plant growth. SOM also stores nutrients for plants and absorbs pollutants that otherwise could contaminate food and water supplies. Soils also help regulate climate by storing carbon that would otherwise be released to the atmosphere and contribute to climate change. This project investigates processes in the soil that protect SOM from being completely consumed by microbes and conversely, processes that could increase its sensitivity to environmental changes. The researchers will also study how climate change and changes in how land is managed affect the amount and stability of SOM. The project involves a large number of researchers and laboratories in conducting a wide range of SOM analyses. It takes advantage of soil samples already collected by the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), a major NSF investment in environmental monitoring that covers the entire United States. The samples will be preserved and the data that results from this project made fully public via the web.<br/><br/>The evolution of a new paradigm, where the primary controls on SOM dynamics are less dependent on molecular structure than on other soil and ecosystem properties, has created a knowledge gap in our ability to predict the response of SOM to environmental change. The relationships among shifting controls over different SOM stabilization mechanisms, ranging from distal factors operating at broad spatial scales (e.g., climate) to proximal controls operating at finer spatial scales (e.g., soil physicochemical properties), are poorly defined. Investigators will test the emerging paradigm by quantifying relationships between the dominant mechanisms of SOM stabilization and the scale of the ecosystem controls (i.e., fine-scale, proximal vs. broad-scale, distal) across a continental-scale system of soil types and ecological domains, utilizing soil samples collected during the construction of NEON. This project will be the first continental-scale assessment of SOM vulnerability and will yield new, predictive insights into controls on SOM stability across soil types, land-use types and environmental gradients. The results will significantly improve our understanding of SOM dynamics, a fundamental scientific advancement in its own right, while also enabling better representation of soils in ecosystem and coupled carbon-climate models. The project represents a new standard in open, community-oriented research, supporting participation by researchers from universities, government and non-government agencies. It will facilitate collaboration through major scientific networks that are increasingly necessary to conduct science at the scale needed to address the complex issues facing society. Graduate and undergraduate students will receive training in state-of-the-science methods of soil science by participating in this research, and insights derived from it will inform decisions by policymakers and resource managers concerned with carbon sequestration and ecosystem services.

ResearchXR

CAREER: Development of Super-Resolution Scanning Probe Stimulated Raman Microscopy with Excellent Spatial Resolution: Lehigh University

Xiaoji Xu

[email protected]

With support from the Chemical Measurement and Imaging Program in the Division of Chemistry, Professor Xiaoji Xu of Lehigh University is developing new measurement methods that probe how light interacts with matter at the nanoscale (1000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair). Raman spectroscopy and microscopy are popular tools for measuring properties of molecules as they enable research discoveries and chemical characterizations of value to industry, health care, and environmental monitoring. Professor Xu is improving the spatial resolution of stimulated Raman microscopy so that objects with dimensions approaching those of large molecules can be chemically characterized on a routine basis, and in a highly robust and reliable fashion. Specifically, this project examines aerosols in the atmosphere that may contain harmful substances that can impair the health of individuals by causing respiratory illness, heart failure, or even prenatal defects. Understanding the composition, origin, and transformation of aerosols is of vital importance for reducing their production or lessening their affects. In addition to studying aerosols, Dr. Xu's team is also developing an educational module that connects cutting-edge scientific research laboratories with elementary and high school students in a standard classroom setting, via immersive virtual reality experiences. A range of chemical reactions are demonstrated to elementary and high school students through virtual reality streaming, thereby promoting their curiosity for science. Furthermore, Professor Xu's educational activities are improving the effectiveness of scientific outreach for promoting science to the general public. <br/><br/>Being able to visualize the chemical properties of matter on small length scales is a major challenge for Raman microscopy. The project is addressing this need for super-resolution Raman microscopy by combining scanning probe microscopy and coherent stimulated Raman events. Chemical sensitivity is provided by the stimulated Raman process. High spatial resolution is achieved by nanoscale probing using a scanning probe microscope tip. The project aims to achieve robust and reliable Raman imaging so as to differentiate objects separated by roughly 10 nanometers. Through integration of nanoscale infrared imaging techniques invented by the Xu group, multimodal spectroscopic and mechanical microscopy are possible for chemical, biological, and environmental samples. Professor Xu's team studies the chemical composition and physical properties of individual sub-micron-sized urban contaminant particles in the atmosphere, allowing his team to decipher their chemical origins and photochemical transformations, with identification of and control over aerosol pollutions being his team's ultimate goal. From efforts associated with the educational plan, many students in elementary and high school classrooms are connected to an advanced research instrument in a laboratory via real-time multimedia capture and streaming devices. The students experience the operation of advanced research instruments, solidifying learning outcomes. Educational activities will be shared with students in schools in the Bethlehem, PA School District.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

ResearchXR

REU Site: Astrophysics and Planetary Science at Cornell University: Cornell University

Alexander Hayes

[email protected]

Cornell University will host a summer REU (Research Experiences for Undergraduates) program in astronomy and planetary science. Each summer, ten students will spend ten weeks at Cornell engaged in research in Space Sciences. The program will strive to recruit diverse cohorts including students from underrepresented groups, students from colleges and universities with limited local research infrastructure, and students with unusual academic careers. Students will work within a small research group involved in groundbreaking science, attend a series of lectures and workshops, and participate in other activities that will introduce them to broader scientific topics as well as the nature of professional careers in astronomy and the processes by which major facilities and missions are designed, constructed, and deployed. The research and professional development programs will help students to understand the nature and ethics of scientific research and the skills and process necessary to become a professional scientist. <br/><br/>Students will participate in on-going astronomy programs at Cornell including the Carl Sagan Institute, the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) and LIGO collaborations, the Cornell instrument group. Cornell planetary scientists are actively engaged in the Cassini, Juno, Europa Clipper, Mars Science Laboratory and Mars2020 Rover missions.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

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