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SBIR Phase II: An Intelligent Water Monitor and Loss Mitigation Service for Building Owners: Mobius Labs, Inc

Matthew Cusack

[email protected]

The broader impact/commercial potential of this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II project will enable the creation of a powerful, simple to use, low-cost Internet of Things (IoT) device needed to facilitate a dramatic reduction in water waste and damage, transform maintenance from responsive to predictive, and improve the health and quality of life for residents. This project will revolutionize how we track and manage water usage, improve conservation, eliminate water waste, and lower overall operating and maintenance costs. At the same time, the new monitoring system enables large reductions in water consumption, electricity utilization and carbon generation relative to water production, transmission, distribution and recycling. This will improve the water system just as electrical usage and monitoring dramatically improved energy consumption for buildings, i.e. in lighting systems. The data analytics solution is scalable within all water fixtures Most importantly, it can be cost-effectively produced in the U.S. and create sustainable, green jobs. We envision this project will eliminate the need for replacing water fixture parts on a schedule because we don?t know when or how things fail, and it will enable Smart Buildings and Smart Cities to protect an increasingly scarce and expensive resource. <br/><br/>The proposed project will build upon the successful technical and customer discoveries from Phase I to develop the ability for a building owner to know when a leak occurs in a water fixture before it does damage, wastes a precious resource, or creates a potential health risk. In Phase I, we demonstrated a Minimum Viable Product that is essentially a ?smoke alarm for water fixtures? that provides a building owner alerts when a water fixture presents signs of a leak, before it does damage. The device is inside an affordable platform can be economically produced in the U.S. Current estimates are that ~23% of water produced is wasted and does damage in the process. Building owners seek a solution that will conserve water, reduce costs and improve their environmental impact. In Phase II, we will measure water from drips to flowing water, develop an IoT device that is simple to install and use, develop powerful analytics for predictive rather than reactive maintenance, and generate data valued by insurance companies and property owners. Data analytics can make the water delivery and consumption process considerably more reliable, and reduce loss and damage significantly.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

 

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CNS Core: Small: Software-Hardware Reconfigurable Systems for Mobile Millimeter-Wave Networks: University of South Carolina at Columbia

Sanjib Sur

[email protected]

Millimeter-wave is a core technology for next-generation wireless and cellular networks (5G and beyond). Networks using millimeter-wave technologies are expected to satiate the rapidly growing customer appetite for mobile data and to meet the stringent throughput, latency, and reliability requirements of emerging applications, such as immersive virtual and mixed reality, tactile internet, vehicular communications, and autonomous vehicles safety. However, high directionality, high channel dynamics, and sensitivity to blockages render state-of-the-art millimeter-wave technologies unsuitable for low-latency, high performance, and ultra-reliable applications. This research project focuses on designing software-hardware reconfigurable systems to address the key challenges and improve the performance, availability, and reliability of mobile millimeter-wave networks. This project will impact the broader population positively because it yields near-term benefits in 5G infrastructure and paves the way for long-term millimeter-wave research. Furthermore, this project will engage in outreach activities and involve a diverse set of students, particularly, women and minorities, leveraging the experimental nature of the research on next-generation wireless and cellular networks.<br/><br/>The project addresses the key challenges by executing three thrusts: (1) MilliNet: To overcome high signal attenuation, millimeter-wave radios must focus their power via highly directional, electronically steerable beams. But, aligning the beams and maintaining the link between devices during obstruction and mobility are the fundamental barriers toward reliable connection. MilliNet, a faster beam alignment protocol, draws on ideas from the sparse channel recovery, allowing the radios to quickly discern the best physical millimeter-wave paths even under thousands of beams and picocell choices. (2) ReconMilli: To achieve spectrum flexibility, next-generation radios must be able to operate over a wide range of the spectrum, from micro-wave to millimeter-wave. But the fundamental challenge is that physical space on mobile devices is limited. ReconMilli, a reconfigurable antenna design, joins multiple millimeter-wave antennas physically into a micro-wave antenna, but splits it, when needed, into multiple millimeter-wave antennas; thus, achieving spectrum flexibility and saving physical space. (3) LiMesh: To make the deployment and maintenance of a 5G picocell mesh easy, mobile operators will use multi-Gbps fixed millimeter-wave links. Yet, disruptions in the wireless mesh are common; but, more importantly, such disruptions are catastrophic for ultra-reliable connectivity. LiMesh, an ultra-reliable picocell mesh design, leverages the fixed geometrical arrangement of the directional links to infer disruptions using a space-time failure correlation metric proactively. The research project will design, build, and empirically validate the proposed systems in millimeter-wave wireless test-beds.<br/><br/>This project is jointly funded by the Computer and Network Systems (CNS) division and the Established Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR).<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

 

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CAREER: Using Computer Simulations to Understand Mate Choice: University of California-Santa Barbara

Daniel Conroy-Beam

[email protected]

The choice of a romantic partner is the most significant decision most people make in their lifetimes. Who people love often affects where they live and work, with whom they have and raise children, who they call friends and family, how they spend their time and money, who celebrates their successes, and who supports them in times of need. As a result, the quality of romantic relationships broadly affects physical health, mental health, and financial success. Understanding how people form and maintain these important relationships is central to understanding human social behavior. It is also a clear means of improving human health, happiness, and well being. Yet gaining a deeper understanding of the romantic partner choice process, and the role it plays in human welfare, is one of the great challenges of social and behavioral science. Romantic relationships develop within complex social environments. They are influenced by interactions between individual preferences, competition between romantic rivals, and mutual attractions that change over time. Accounting for such complex and intricate social systems requires assessing multiple, intertwined processes that are difficult to measure and observe. This project approaches the problem by developing a new computer simulation technique. The aim is to apply this technique to accelerate progress in basic understanding of romantic partner choice.<br/><br/>This new technique ("couple simulation") compares theories of mate selection on their ability to reconstruct actual romantic relationships within computer simulations. Couple simulation will advance progress in mate choice research by providing the first empirical metrics for comparing different models of human mate selection. The method will help address questions such as: (1) what precisely are the decision processes that connect abstract, ideal preferences to real mate choices? (2) how do these early mate choice decisions relate to longer-term relationship quality and dissolution? (3) is it possible to identify those who are likely to have a fulfilling and supportive relationship? In preliminary studies, this technique identifies accurate models of romantic partner choice and predicts romantic relationship quality. This project will further develop couple simulation by combining agent-based modeling with studies of committed romantic couples, of change and stability in romantic relationships over time, and of the dynamics of initial relationship formation. The scientific aim is to produce computational models that more accurately describe romantic partner choice and that can more effectively aid people in forming fulfilling relationships. The project will also provide training in computational methods for a diverse group of early-career researchers, and it will contribute a novel, validated tool for relationship science to continue building on these successes into the future.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

 

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A NEIGHBORHOOD APPROACH TO THE BIOGEOGRAPHY OF PUERTO RICAN TREES: Columbia University

Maria Uriarte

[email protected]

The geographic distributions of tree species reflects both physical (e.g., geology, climate) and biological processes (e.g., competition, herbivory). These factors do not act independently. For example, the strength of competition among trees may be stronger in low fertility soils. However, only a few studies have examined the simultaneous effects of physical factors and biological processes on tree growth and survival. Such synthesis is central to predicting tree species responses to environmental change. This is a critical issue in tropical forests because these ecosystems are experiencing rapid environmental change and play a key role in regulating global climate. This research will develop a novel analytical approach to characterize the joint effects of physical heterogeneity and local biological interactions on growth and survival of tree species across the island of Puerto Rico. The island has high tree diversity, marked environmental and climate gradients, and an extensive amount of existing data, making this an ideal site for this research. Results from this study will inform the likelihood of success of several USDA Forest Service initiatives to adapt to rapid environmental change. Existing collaborations between the researchers and local organizations will facilitate a direct impact on the management and conservation of Puerto Rican forests. Data will be made available online and provided directly to local management agencies, including the US Forest Service and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources. The researchers also will organize workshops on the analytical methods at Puerto Rican institutions. Finally, the project will train and employ a Puerto Rican technician and a postdoctoral researcher, contributing to STEM workforce development.<br/><br/>Range dynamics and community assembly reflect the interactive effects of regional environmental heterogeneity and local processes. Yet empirical examination of these interactions is rare. The researchers will develop a novel functional trait-based, spatially-explicit neighborhood approach to disentangle local effects of environmental heterogeneity and biotic interactions on tree growth and survival across Puerto Rico while accounting for individual trait variation. To do so, they will couple (a) tree trait measurements across species ranges traits, including traits related to water use strategies, (b) trait-based neighborhood models of tree growth and survival derived from data collected in 24 mapped plots, and (c) generalized joint attribute models that characterize species distributions with respect to regional environmental gradients using herbaria collections. They will test the following hypotheses: (1) the negative effect of local biotic interactions on tree growth and survival is highest at the most environmentally favorable sites for a species, fostering regional coexistence; (2) the spatial structure of intraspecific trait variation across environmental gradients fosters such coexistence. Results from this research will empirically examine the importance of individual trait variation in mediating regional species coexistence and test the importance of a stabilizing mechanism in promoting species-coexistence and diversity in tropical forests. The research will lay a conceptual foundation for future studies that place local community interactions within a biogeographic context and transform understanding of the environmental and biotic factors that mediate forest community assembly at regional scales.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

 

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CAREER: SusChEM: Heavy Atom Isotope Effects in Carbon Dioxide Fixation Catalysis: Fundamental Understanding and Catalyst Discovery: University of Connecticut

Alfredo Angeles-Boza

[email protected]

In this CAREER project funded by the Chemical Structure, Dynamics & Mechanisms B Program of the Chemistry Division, Professor Alfredo Angeles-Boza of the Department of Chemistry at the University of Connecticut is developing new methods to understand how carbon dioxide can be converted to other molecules with interesting properties. Carbon dioxide is an abundant by-product of fossil fuels combustion. Its conversion into other molecules with useful properties not only contributes to the long term supply of raw materials. Many research groups are investigating ways to convert carbon dioxide into other useful molecules. Clearly, better understating of how such conversions are done may lead to more effective ways of achieving such conversions. Toward such a goal, Professor Alfredo Angeles-Boza is exploiting the differences in reactivity between forms of the same element (here, carbon and oxygen) that contain equal numbers of protons but different atomic masses for the study of materials used in such conversions. The project lies at the interface of inorganic, physical and materials chemistry, and is well suited to the education of scientists at different levels, from high school students to Ph.D. graduates. The program offers a multidisciplinary training ground for undergraduate and graduate<br/>students. The proposal includes year-round undergraduate research projects and is part of the departmental REU program. A goal is to decrease the attrition rate among the students initially interested in sciences by working on three key issues: (i) tutoring to decrease the barriers that limit success in the early chemistry courses; (ii) assembling a group of like-minded Hispanic students as it is generally understood that such a group of a critical mass is needed to help bring a sense of familiarity to the students environment; and (iii) mentoring student to combat the lack of science-oriented minority role models. <br/><br/>To improve catalyst design, it is important to understand the origins of the kinetic barriers of the reactions. This project is a comprehensively illuminates the chemical mechanisms of transition metal-catalyzed carbon dioxide reduction reactions. The project combines the use of synthesis, kinetics, and heavy atom (13C and 18O) isotope effects with density functional theory calculations to address bond formation, bond cleavage, and electron transfer mechanisms during carbon dioxide activation. The project seeks to answer the following questions: (1) What values of 13C and 18O kinetic isotope effects characterize transition metal-catalyzed carbon dioxide reduction reactions? (2) Can the driving force and nucleophilicity of a catalyst influence the heavy atom isotope effects measured in carbon dioxide reduction reactions? (3) What 13C and 18O equilibrium isotope effects characterize the various transition metal- carbon dioxide binding modes? For his educational plan, Professor Angeles-Boza is developing an effective learning community for students underrepresented in science.

 

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INSPIRE: Development of a Technique to Detect Single Ba Atoms in Solid Xe Matrix Toward Be Tagging in nEXO: Colorado State University

William Fairbank

[email protected]

This INSPIRE project is jointly funded by the Experimental Nuclear Physics and the Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics programs in the Physics Division, the Chemical Measurement and Imaging program in the Chemistry Division (both Divisions are in the Mathematical and Physical Sciences Directorate of NSF), and the Office of Integrative Activities. The award supports the discovery and development of a technique to detect and uniquely identify one barium atom in five tons of liquid xenon using novel methods of laser spectroscopy. The ultimate goal is the discovery of a rare radioactive decay, called neutrinoless double-beta decay, of the isotope 136Xe. The proposed single-Ba detection technique would make the experimental search for this decay significantly more sensitive. A discovery of this decay would show that neutrinos are the same as anti-neutrinos. This would fundamentally change our view of the elementary components of matter and would potentially contribute to an understanding of why there is more matter than anti-matter in the universe. Instruments and methods developed in this project may be relevant to the kinds of matrix isolation experiments used in chemistry. The proposed work also has very important educational and outreach components, as it connects high school teachers to state-of-the-art research. <br/><br/><br/>A major breakthrough in detecting barium atoms in solid xenon at the single atom level has recently been achieved. Continued interdisciplinary research will be supported in which individual atoms of Ba will be imaged by laser-induced fluorescence while trapped in a matrix of solid Xe grown first on a sapphire window and then at the end on an optically accessible probe. Research on grabbing and detecting Ba atoms on a probe from liquid xenon is also planned. The ultimate goal of the work is to capture and detect a single 136Ba daughter of neutrinoless double-beta decay of 136Xe, advancing what may be the ultimate background suppression method for ton-scale experiments. The possibility afforded by this technique is unique to 136Xe and, coupled to a second phase of the nEXO detector, could substantially improve its sensitivity beyond 10^28 year half life, allowing the exploration of part of the normal hierarchy regime of neutrino mass. The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay answers a grand challenge in nuclear physics, whether or not 2-component Majorana fermions exist in Nature. This may shed some light on the puzzling fact that neutrinos have a finite mass and yet they are so much lighter than all other known particles. In addition the observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would provide a measurement of the neutrino mass scale and demonstrate the first case of lepton number violation.

 

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CAREER: Multimodal Nanoelectrochemistry to Characterize Nanometer and Microsecond Resolved Transmitter Release: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Mei Shen

[email protected]

Neurotransmitters, as the chemical messengers of nerve and brain communication, are involved in many behaviors and emotional responses, such as learning, memory, and attention. Abnormalities in neurochemical communication are implicated in disorders and diseases of the nervous system, which include drug addiction, dementia, diabetes, cancer, and aging. Dr. Mei Shen of the University of Illinois creates new electrochemical methods and microscopes to detect, measure, and visualize the presence of chemicals that are used as neurotransmitters (neurochemicals) that currently cannot be investigated by other methods. These novel measurement tools enable new discoveries in chemical communications between nerve cells, which result from electrical and chemical signals. The tools and techniques promise to provide an increased understanding of brain function. Professor Shen's program also promotes early-childhood education, and teaching and learning of both college and graduate students through an education project called NANO. Educational efforts with young children in the program help develop positive attitudes toward science and serve as an early intervention to reduce science achievement gaps that are present before kindergarten. The college-level educational activities serve local communities by generating fundamental knowledge to address societal health-care challenges and provide enriching opportunities for students in science. <br/><br/>With this award, the Chemical Measurement and Imaging Program in the Division of Chemistry is funding Dr. Mei Shen at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to develop new neuroanalysis platforms to enable better understanding of brain chemistry. Until now, it has been difficult to concurrently measure two different groups of monoamine and cholinergic neurotransmitters at the location where neurons communicate. This research program seeks to create chemically-sensitive, multimodal, electrochemical platforms that provide fast (microsecond), nanometer-resolution measurements of these two groups of neurotransmitters. This project is interdisciplinary, impacting the fields of electrochemistry, nanoscience, neuroscience, and brain chemistry. In education and outreach, "Nanoelectrochemistry And Neuroscience Outreach (NANO)" education projects are developed to teach nanoscience and brain chemistry to children from preschool age to grade 12 in public schools. The long term education goals include helping children develop positive attitudes toward science through science learning experiences in early childhood and addressing the science achievement gaps that are initially present during preschool and continue to occur as children age. Collaborations with the Child Development Laboratory of Illinois (CDL) and public schools provide opportunities for teaching brain chemistry to diverse groups of children.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

 

InventXRLearn TechResearchXR

The Effect of Pictures in Books for Beginning Readers: Attention Allocation, Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension in K-2 Students: Carnegie-Mellon University

Anna Fisher

[email protected]

The practice of using illustrations in materials for teaching children to read dates back over 250 years. In recent years, illustrations in books for beginning readers have become increasingly more colorful and engaging than in the past. Yet, there is virtually no research evaluating the effect of close proximity of text to colorful engaging illustrations on emerging literacy skills. However, there are theoretical and empirical reasons to believe that engaging colorful illustrations placed in close proximity to text in books for beginning readers may interfere with (rather that aid) emerging literacy skills. This research will examine (1) whether close proximity of text to illustrations, a typical layout in books for beginning readers, creates competition for attentional resources, thus interfering with reading fluency and comprehension; and (2) how the layout of books for beginning readers can be optimized to reduce competition for attentional resources and thus improve fluency and comprehension in beginning readers. <br/><br/>To address these questions, this project will use portable eye tracking devices to examine the patterns of attention allocation as children in kindergarten through second grade read books designed for beginning readers. Specifically, researchers will measure the number of gaze shifts from text to illustrations and the total time children spend looking at text and illustrations. It is hypothesized that frequent gaze shifts from text to illustrations are indicative of children being distracted by illustrations. Additionally, researchers will collect measures of reading fluency and reading comprehension. In a series of six studies, researchers will compare performance on measures of attention and reading when children read commercially available books to modified versions of the same books. The modifications to commercially available books will be aimed at optimizing the layout of text and illustrations to reduce competition for attentional resources. It is predicted that modified book layouts will lead to decreased frequency of gaze shifts from text to illustrations, and increased reading fluency and comprehension. Overall, this project has potential to uncover low-cost and easy to scale basic principles to achieve optimal design of reading materials to improve literacy skills of beginning readers.

 

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Feeding and Feedback: Understanding the Assembly of Galactic Disks: University of California-Santa Barbara

Crystal Martin

[email protected]

The growth of galaxies occurs as the galaxies gather gas from their surroundings to produce stars. The stars will then produce a 'wind' that is driven by starlight and energetic particles along with supernovae from the explosion of more massive stars. This wind serves to drive gas away from the galaxies which slows down the star formation rate. This project will study the flow of gas in and out of star forming galaxies by looking at how the light from distant quasars is absorbed as it passes through the gas surrounding the more nearby star forming galaxies. The project will also compare their results with cosmological simulations to better understand both the simulations and the status of the galaxies. The project will also enhance the educational opportunities for underrepresented minorities from elementary school to the graduate level.<br/><br/>As galaxies grow, they accrete gas from their surroundings to feed their star formation. As they form stars, they produce a galactic wind that drives gas away. This project will study the flow of gas in and out of star forming galaxies. The flow of the gas will be measured by observing absorption lines from circum-galactic gas lying along the line-of-sight to distant quasars. This will give us a better understanding of how gas flows in and out of galaxies as they grow. The project will analyze 50 new sightlines, sampling the circum-galactic medium (CGM) around several typical star forming galaxies. The project will then compare these results with cosmological simulations of galaxy formation, using the EAGLE simulations. The project will also perform a ?Look Back Study? by comparing galaxies at redshifts of ~0.2 with their lower mass progenitors a redshifts of 2. In this part, the project will look at clumpy distant galaxies and statistically determine if the clumpiness can be related to different outflows of gas. The project will also enhance the educational opportunities for underrepresented minorities from elementary school to the graduate level.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

 

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In Situ TEM and Ex Situ Studies of Two-Dimensional Nanostructured Devices: University of Pennsylvania

Marija Drndic

[email protected]

Nontechnical Abstract:<br/>This NSF project focuses on an experimental investigation of novel two-dimensional nanostructured materials towards the fabrication and synthesis of one-dimensional electronic devices. This research combines fabrication of devices at the atomic scale in ultrathin materials with electrical characterization. The research team aims at advancing synthesis, characterization, and understanding of two-dimensional materials for an atom-by-atom control of structure-property-performance relationships while monitoring the evolution during device heating and electron irradiation and recording key device properties such as electron transport. More broadly, this project has impacts on education (university and K-12 students, on public forums: festivals and museum exhibits) and industry (e.g., on electron microscopy companies). The broader impact also includes the realization of low-dimensional materials and the advancement of devices including miniaturized electronics with improved power consumption. Moreover, this project impacts industries developing on-chip nanoscale devices. Outreach to a broad nanodevice community and to the electron microscopy industry includes open source software for analyzing data as well as the development of a novel equipment for advanced electron microscopy. The educational part provides innovative multidisciplinary learning opportunities for students at all levels, at the crossroads of electron microscopy and solid-state materials science in the Greater Philadelphia Area. To exploit the specific nature of this research project at the interface of physics and materials science, the PI's team participates in large public events in this metro area: the Nano Day at Penn, the Philadelphia Science Festival and the Philly Materials Day. The research team gives nanoscience presentations to high school students at the Penn Summer Science Academy and participates in the STEM outreach in the Philadelphia School District.<br/><br/><br/>Technical Abstract:<br/>This project exploits materials growth and materials irradiation by electron and ion beams to modify materials with nm-scale spatial and density control, towards engineering of their properties and observations of emerging phenomena that arise when material and device sizes are reduced and when single atomic layers of materials are stacked in a well-defined manner. This work establishes a more complete understanding of transport in low-dimensional materials that can enhance or replace silicon in future electronic-based devices. Thin atomic sheets are of particular interest since their electrical properties can be tuned by their geometry. Utilizing a novel experimental platform pioneered by the PI and state-of-the-art transmission electron microscopy instrumentation along with ex situ Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and low temperature measurements, this project aims at understanding and controlling properties of thin materials such as nanosculpted structures for new multi-terminal electronic devices and few-nm-wide metal dichalcogenide nanoribbons. This research includes a comprehensive analysis toolkit enabling sub-angstrom device fabrication and atomically resolved property analysis. This work also advances device fabrication and characterization, thus opening the door to a wealth of unexplored physics. This research is organized into three primary cross-cutting themes: (1) growth, stacking, and electron microscopy characterization of two-dimensional layers and heterostructures, (2) electron beam nanosculpting and processing into one-dimensional nanodevices, and (3) nanodevice measurements. This project focuses on new materials including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (MoS2 and WS2) and topological thermoelectrics (Bi2Se3).<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

 

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