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The Nature of the Archean Geomagnetic Field: University of Rochester

John Tarduno

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The origin of the geomagnetic field is important for understanding the evolution of Earth's deep interior, surface environment and atmosphere. But defining the nature of the early geomagnetic field is challenging; even the best preserved rocks from the Archean eon (more than 2.5 billion-years-old) have seen low grade metamorphism (at 200 degrees C to 320 degrees C) related to geologic events after their formation. The acquisition of later magnetizations by these rocks is expected, precluding use of conventional paleointensity techniques. A newly developed approach to the problem, utilizing CO2 laser heating and DC SQUID magnetometer measurements, provides a means to obtain paleodirections and intensities from single silicate crystals which host magnetite inclusions. Using these techniques, 3.2 billion-year-old field strengths have been reported from Archean rocks of South Africa that are within 50% of the present-day value. This indicates that a viable magnetosphere sheltered the early Earth's atmosphere from solar wind erosion.<br/><br/>Rocks older than 3.2 billion years old are found in South Africa and Swaziland, potentially holding a 300 to 400 million-year-long record of geomagnetic field behavior preserved in single silicate crystals. The new paleointensity approach can also be used to examine these rocks. If the geomagnetic field was present during this interval, these data should provide bounds on its strength, and they may be used to make inferences on field morphology. Such constraints on the nature of the earliest geomagnetic field are of interest to a broad range of sciences interested in core and mantle processes.<br/><br/>Among the broader impacts of these investigations are that they form the basis for the dissertation studies of graduate and undergraduate students. Students take part in field and laboratory work, and assist in K-12 activities, integrating graduate and undergraduate teaching efforts at the University of Rochester with area school programs. <br/>

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Doctoral dissertation research: Linguistic avoidance and social relations: SUNY at Buffalo

Jeffrey Good

[email protected]

What is the role of language in how we manage our relationships with other people? This dissertation project investigates this question from the perspective of a Tanzanian language called Datooga, which has a special respect vocabulary used only by women. Out of respect for their husbands' families, married women avoid saying the names of their in-laws, as well as any ordinary words in the language that sound like these names. To be able to talk freely while still observing the taboo, Datooga women have developed an entire additional vocabulary, distinct from that of the ordinary language. "Avoidance registers," as these special vocabularies are known, are rare across the world's languages, but have arisen independently in several parts of Africa, as well as in Mongolia and Australia. Unfortunately, we currently have an incomplete picture of how these avoidance registers work, because most previous research has relied on interviews with speakers rather than observation of actual speech. This dissertation project will provide the first comprehensive documentation of an avoidance register in everyday use.<br/> <br/>Avoidance registers are important for the study of language because they illustrate strikingly the social function of language; they are motivated solely by interpersonal concerns relating to gender, kinship, and social status. To explore the social dynamics of the Datooga avoidance register, this project involves collecting, transcribing, and analysing audio-visual recordings of spontaneous interaction in Datooga homesteads, as well as compiling a database of avoidance vocabulary. Fieldwork will be conducted in Manyara Region, Tanzania, and data will be collected from several families across the region. This project will significantly advance our understanding of linguistic avoidance and its role in social life, while also building on our knowledge of an understudied language and making a unique contribution to the documentation of the world's linguistic diversity.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Examination of Dental Maturation in South African Australopithecines by Computed Tomography: Washington University

Glenn Conroy

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Drs. Conroy and Vannier are pioneers in the application of computed tomographic (CT) techniques to paleontological materials. With previous NSF support, they have demonstrated that fossilized specimens still partially embedded in sedimentary matrix may be analyzed. With CT, the adhering material can, in effect, be stripped away to reveal the underlying bone. Also it is possible to examine the internal structure of the bone. These results have permitted paleontologists and paleoanthropologists to address new questions. In this project Dr. Conroy and Vannier will continue their study of fossil hominid (human) cranial remains. They will travel to South Africa, where many important specimens were found and are now housed and conduct CT studies. The results, stored in computerized form, will then be analyzed at Washington University. To provide baseline data, a sample of modern specimens will also be studied. In particular, the team will focus on the teeth and stages of dental eruption. In this way they will attempt to determine the age at which individuals died and to reconstruct the patterns of dental eruption. This research is important for several reasons. First, anthropologists cannot agree on how many different kinds of early humans are represented in the African fossil record. Through comparison of developmental rates in a number of fossils, these groupings may become more clear. Secondly, anthropologists argue about the extent to which different hominid species were, in their developmental rates, more human or more pongid (great ape) like. Until this work, the evidence has been limited to visual inspection which noted the teeth protruding from the mandible or maxilla. Because the CT technique allows one to examine the developmental stages of unerupted teeth, it offers a much more sensitive measure. Finally, this research will provide additional insight into the development of basic human biological characteristics.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Doctoral Dissertation Improvement :Influences of Materials Properties and Biomechanics on Stone Tool Production: George Washington University

Alison Brooks

[email protected]

In contrast to their great ape relatives, humans have spread from their original home in a limited region of Africa to occupy and even dominate almost all terrestrial habitats. Their success has in part been attributed to the use of, and dependence on, technology of which stone tools represent the earliest evidence. The form of stone tools, together with data on their use and manufacture (knapping), also provide a long record of human cognitive development. Since the early period of tool production corresponds to major changes in the morphology of the hand, wrist and arm, researchers have suggested that increasing use of stone tools played a role in shaping modern human upper limb anatomy. The fracture mechanics involved in producing stone tools in different raw materials and the biomechanics of the upper limb during stone tool production, however, are not well understood. The interactive relationship of fracture mechanics and upper limb morphology on the resulting stone tool is also unclear. This project addresses these issues from an interdisciplinary perspective that integrates lithic analysis with experiments in fracture mechanics and biomechanics. Two main hypotheses will be tested: 1.) magnitude and direction of knapping forces required to produce specific flake morphologies can be predicted from raw material properties (i.e., toughness) and core shape, and, 2.) evolved upper limb morphology in Homo plays a key role in efficient stone tool production.<br/> The research design involves fracture mechanics experiments on relevant raw materials, followed by a two phase analysis of knapping motions using a digital motion analysis system to study upper limb motion patterns and forces acting across the hand and wrist. The motion analysis study will involve ten experienced knappers replicating stone flakes and tools in two different raw materials from four different successive tool traditions (Oldowan, Acheulian, Levallois and Middle Stone Age). The two phases will involve the same tasks but in the second phase the knappers' wrists will be restrained to ~30° of anterior-posterior motion to simulate the primitive condition found in African apes and early hominins. Flakes and tools from the two phases will be compared and analyzed for the accuracy and efficiency of motions during the natural vs. the restrained condition. The goal of this study is to determine how fundamental variables involved in stone tool production (material toughness, fracture behavior, core shape and upper limb kinematics) interact to determine flake morphology, knapping accuracy, and energetic efficiency. The study will provide new insights into the advent and development of stone tool production and the evolution of the human upper limb. This in turn has significant clinical implications for understanding upper limb joint motions, variations in morphology, and the impact of injuries and degenerative bone diseases.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

RAPID: The Emergence and Evolution of Forced Migration Routes: Colby College

Nadia El-Shaarawi

[email protected]

With more than 65.3 million forced migrants worldwide, global displacement is at an all-time high. Most of the displaced are located in states adjacent to their countries of origin, primarily in the Middle East or Africa. One of the characteristics of contemporary displacement is that these countries of first asylum host the majority of refugees, who often live in limbo in camps or urban centers for years, while richer states keep refugees and migrants at arms' length through policies of deterrence and border control. However, from 2014 through 2016 more than one million migrants reached Europe via the Balkan land route, breaching "Fortress Europe" in unprecedented fashion. This mass migration has far reaching impacts for the stability of the European Union and the lives of millions of refugees and migrants. Yet, almost no empirical research has been conducted on the route, leaving open questions about how the route was forged and the role of refugees themselves in its creation. These questions can only be answered through ethnographic fieldwork while many of the key actors and sites remain in place along the route. This research takes place in the context of the largest global forced migration since World War II. Findings will be disseminated to aid organizations that explore and manage the causes, consequences, and complexities of mass migration. The research also fosters international scientific cooperation, and will train undergraduate students in methods of anthropological data collection and analysis.<br/><br/>This RAPID award supports fieldwork in Egypt, Greece, Serbia, and Germany – countries of departure, transit, and destination – to understand mobility along the Balkan route. The investigators, Drs. Nadia El-Shaarawi and Maple Razsa of Colby College, have longstanding relationships with migrants and refugees from the Middle East, as well as networks along the route, which will allow them to gain access to sites that might otherwise be clandestine and inaccessible. Through participant observation and interviews at sites that have been crucial to recent migrant mobility, sites where migrants and humanitarian workers come together, the researchers will study the forms of negotiation and struggle that made the route possible. Further, they will investigate how migrants experience and manage efforts to restrict their movement. A focus on the route itself, and the ways that refugees and migrants sustained mobility within networks along the route, will provide an empirical alternative to analyses of refugees as victims as well as a methodological tendency to study refugees in place. Such an approach will shed light on how migrant mobility itself is organized, sustained, and curtailed. While the ongoing crisis is unique in scale, an understanding of its social complexity can inform our knowledge of other, similar processes of migration and displacement in the U.S. and worldwide. With the number of refugees only increasing globally, displacement remains a topic of important social and political concern.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Doctoral Dissertation Research: Language Ideologies, Conservation Ideologies: Multilingualism and Collaboration in Transnational Environmental Work: University of California-Los Angeles

Paul Kroskrity

[email protected]

Environmental conservation efforts are often directed to regions of the world that have high levels of biodiversity. Such areas frequently have high levels of linguistic diversity, as well. This means that the difficulties of bringing about coordination and cooperation among diverse stakeholders are all too often compounded by miscommunications and misunderstandings resulting from linguistic failure. Successful conservation requires collaboration between scientists, educators, hunters, farmers, policy makers, and citizens, all of whom may have different goals and hold different beliefs about the environment. How is such collaboration possible when people must work across multiple languages to communicate? When is it successful? When and why does it fail? To answer these questions, University of California Los Angeles anthropology doctoral candidate Rosalie Edmonds, supervised by Dr. Paul V. Kroskrity, will conduct a close anthropological and linguistic investigation of communication and collaboration in a site that is both highly bio-diverse and deeply multi-lingual. Examining how varied stakeholders work together in this site will enable the creation of appropriate policies and practices for multi-lingual workplaces wherever they may occur.<br/><br/>The research will take place at the Limbe Wildlife Centre in Cameroon, Central Africa. This is an appropriate site for this investigation because in addition to English and French, Cameroon is home to 280 indigenous languages and the Centre is also visited by tourists who speak yet more languages. Despite these major lingustic challenges, the Centre has successfully rescued and rehabilitated animals for over twenty years, while also providing environmental education programming in local schools and rural communities, and serving as a tourist destination. In such a diverse context, what languages do people use to communicate with each other, and how do they resolve misunderstandings? The researcher will collect data by observing how people collaborate to solve environmental problems. She will record daily activities and natural language interactions; conduct interviews to explore people's beliefs about conservation work and perceptions of communication; and carry out participant observation to gain an insider understanding. By combining approaches from linguistic and environmental anthropology, this research document how people talk about, conceptualize, and perform conservation-related tasks in a multilingual environment, and what impact their talk has on how the work is accomplished. Clarifying how people communicate and work together in this situation will permit a new perspective on how global problems can be successfully negotiated in transnational, multilingual settings. Additionally, this research will develop practical materials to facilitate cross-cultural communication, including language guides, and a best practices workshop for communicating with people from different backgrounds.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Doctoral Dissertation Research: Death and Migration: Negotiating the Secular and Islam in Greece: Yale University

Marcia Inhorn

[email protected]

Doctoral student Christina Palivos (Yale University), with the guidance of Dr. M. Kamari Clarke, will undertake research on secularism, the state, and migration. As migrants with particular religious orientations move into secular and semi-secular democracies, they pose unanticipated challenges for both the theory and practice of modern state governance, as evidenced by the head scarf debate in France. Palivos will focus her research on the problems of burial of migrant Muslims who die while moving through Greece on their way to various destinations in Europe. In the past decade, the Evros River and the Aegean Sea along the eastern borders of Greece have become the main points of entry for approximately 90 per cent of migrants en route to Europe from the Middle East, Africa, South Asia, and Central Asia; many of them are Muslim. As the number of people crossing these bodies of water has grown, so has the number who die along the way, making Greece an excellent site to explore these issues. <br/><br/>Palivos will undertake eighteen months of ethnographic research amongst Muslim immigrants in three Greek locations: Athens, Lesvos, and Alexandroupolis. She will gather data on the different treatments that Muslim dead receive in Greece, including repatriation of remains to the country of origin, relocation of remains from to Thrace (the only Greek site with Muslim cemetaries), and local burial of unidentified remains in unmarked graves. Research methods will include participant observation, semi-structured interviews, burial case studies, repatriation case studies, and archival research. <br/><br/>This research is important because it will contribute to social scientific understanding of how the current economic crisis and attendant migration are together changing what it means to be a modern state subject. Her research also will fill gaps in what is known about the circulation of dead bodies within and across national borders and contribute to the ethnography of contemporary Greece. Supporting this research also supports the education of a graduate student.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Doctoral Dissertation Research: Grouping dynamics of lowland woolly monkeys: University of Texas at Austin

Anthony Di Fiore

[email protected]

Multilevel societies are some of the most complex social systems found in nature and have been identified in a wide array of taxa including elephants, cetaceans, birds, some species of non-human primates from Africa and Asia, and humans. However, little attention has been paid to possible examples of multilevel societies among New World primates. To resolve this gap and to provide additional insights into the causes and consequences of multilevel societies, the proposed research will focus on within- and between-group association patterns of woolly monkeys at the Tiputini Biodiversity Station (TBS) in Amazonian Ecuador. At TBS, woolly monkey groups may fission into small coordinated subgroups that persist for hours or even days, but similar to other multilevel societies, socially-cohesive groups may also coalesce into temporary supergroups that rest, travel, and forage together for several hours. Both of these patterns of behavior are reminiscent of human social systems. The project will contribute to long-term ecological, behavioral, and genetic datasets on an Amazonian research site of global biodiversity significance and will support the professional development of a female graduate student and research assistants.<br/><br/>Utilizing social network analysis, this project will quantitatively assess whether woolly monkeys form predictable grouping levels consistent with other multilevel societies. Additionally, behavioral data will be coupled with molecular genetic methods to investigate how range use, genetic relatedness, reproductive status, and attraction to others of the same age and/or sex class influence spatiotemporal associations. The proposed study represents one of the first investigations of the social dynamics of a New World primate from an explicitly multilevel perspective and promises to bring new insights to the understanding of sociality in humans and non-human primates. Additionally, by correlating genetic relatedness with social network structure, this project will provide a critical comparative dataset in which to examine the importance of kinship in maintaining affiliative relationships within and across social units.

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

Dissertation Research: The Application of Human Alu Diversity to A Model of Sudden Population Expansion: Pennsylvania State Univ University Park

Mark Stoneking

[email protected]

ABSTRACT P.I. Mark Stoneking/Steve Sherry SBR- 9318826 The last decade has seen the adoption of molecular technology in surveys of human genetic diversity. The purpose of these studies has been a clarification of the human evolutionary process. One study in particular, from Alan Wilson's lab, initiated a vigorous period of research on the information contint of phylogenetic trees, their underlying assumptions and their potential role in reliably inferring past evolutionary events. A second theoretical impetus centers on the effecto of ancient population growth on a type of molecular data: the distribution of pairwise mutational differences between individuals (called the mismatch distribution). Human mismatch distributions should preserva record of popuations expansions and spearations in the remote past. Expansion times have been identified for different populations from 30,000 to 180,000 years ago, and that significant expansion occurred during thelate middle and upper Paleolithic (40,000 to 125,000 years ago). The latest hypothesis to emerge from these sorts of studies center around a gradual Middle Paleolithic migration out of Africa followed by later regional episodes of rapid population growth during the Upper Paleolithic, although all inference is currently based on variation at a single genetic locus. This project will satisfy the theoretical needs for multiple, independent measures of population diversity, by analyzing Alu repeats. It will also further the technical capabilities of an excellent young scientist. *** Panthrojfried9318826.abs ! ! ! D H H ( Times New Roman Symbol & Arial D D D " h Tt Est E = Jonathan Friedlaender Jonathan Friedlaender

AfricaNSFThe Research University (TRU)

DISSERTATION RESEARCH: Nutritional mechanisms of population regulation in frugivorous primates: the effects of logging on redtail monkeys in Kibale National Park, Uganda: University of Florida

Colin Chapman

[email protected]

With primate populations losing 125,140 km2 of habitat annually most populations exist either in isolated, scattered protected areas, or in unprotected areas facing pressures from an increasing human population. Cercopithecine monkeys, a subfamily of small, frugivorous monkeys, are now found only in tiny forest fragments and a few national parks and forest reserves throughout West and East Africa. Scientists have recognized that little progress has been made towards providing scientific information that managers can use in the conservation of this subfamily. For example, while it has been suggested that weather, disease, infanticide, and food resources may all act to regulate primates populations, little is known about the specific conditions necessary for a species to survive and prosper. Food resources have been argued to be the most common limiting factor for most species, yet little is known about how food quantity and quality interact to determine the size and distribution of primate populations. This is particularly true for frugivorous primates since fruit, unlike leaves, is typically low in protein, minerals, and lipids, making it difficult to maintain a balanced diet. Therefore, this study will use redtail monkeys in Kibale National Park, Uganda to investigate the relationship between nutrient intake and availability, reproduction, and population densities. In addition, it will determine if nutritional factors are responsible for reduced population densities of redtail monkeys in heavily logged areas. Three focal groups have been identified in the heavily logged and unlogged areas to: 1) quantify and compare seasonal nutrient intake of groups between areas and to examine relationships between nutrient availability and intake, 2) compare the relationship between nutrient intake and reproduction between groups and correlate nutrient intake and availability with reproductive rates, timing, and infant survival, and 3) identify behavioral responses to changes in seasonal nutrient availability and intake. In addition, nutrient intake and behaviors will be correlated with group size across all six groups. Finally, existing data on redtail population densities and diets across six habitats within Kibale will be used to test for correlations between nutrient availability, key food resources, and redtail population densities. This will be the first study to explicitly examine the role of nutrition in population regulation of frugivorous primates and one of only a few to quantify the mechanisms by which habitat disturbance affects primates. The results of this study have implications to our understanding of the diets and nutrition of extinct and extant primates and hominids, the role of nutrition in population regulation, and the conservation and management of frugivore populations. By identifying the tree species needed to support high densities of redtail monkeys, current and future habitat restoration and protection plans will have the information necessary to design appropriate management strategies.

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