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I-Corps: Virtual Reality Biofeedback Education Technologies

Award Number: 1938166
Sponsor : Cornell University
Michael Timmons [email protected] (Principal Investigator)

The broader impact/commercial potential of this I-Corps project is to provide a new means for how educational content is delivered in virtual reality (VR) with consistent impact, independent of demographics and environment. This technology offers a higher level of personalized learning that can be administered without requiring accompanying professional development for teachers due to the delivery of lessons in a highly controlled virtual environment. Removing this dependence on additional training facilitates the adoption across schools with limited resources. The increased efficacy in learning and retention of material through VR has made it a technology of interest for teachers and school administrators. This technology can be used across a range of educational subjects, and with the immersive personalized learning experience, offers a high-quality learning solution for educators.

This I-Corps project uses biofeedback to personalize learning in virtual reality (VR). The technology manipulates a user’s environment based on their physiological reactions. This can include the surrounding physical objects, light source, or landscape. The auditory manipulation is a more indirect change where the audio path of a lesson is based on the emotional reaction of a user, such as when someone is distracted or agitated. This emotional reaction is based on tracking numerous physiological inputs over time. The identification process is based on existing research using the same physiological measures to classify users’ emotional states and improved through this project This level of adaptation enables a higher degree of VR program customization and more a meaningful learning experience while using the technology.

This award reflects NSF’s statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation’s intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

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SusChEM: Design Principles Inspired by Symmetry for Controlling Singlet Fission in Structurally Well-Defined Covalent Dimers: University of Colorado at Boulder

Niels Damrauer

[email protected]

In this project funded by the Chemical Structure, Dynamic & Mechanism B Program of the Chemistry Division, Professors Niels H. Damrauer and Tarek Sammakia of the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Colorado Boulder are synthesizing new organic molecular systems that contain two chromophores (i.e., parts of the molecules that can absorb light) and using spectroscopy to explore their photophysics. The goal is to develop design rules for how the arrangement of the chromophores controls excited state reactivity following visible light photoexcitation. The particular reaction of interest is important in certain next-generation strategies to increase the efficiency of solar cells by limiting waste heat production that generally occurs when higher energy solar photons are absorbed. This proposal establishes a fundamental research program where students are exposed to a considerable breadth of ideas in synthesis, spectroscopy, and applications of electronic structure theory. A specific outreach effort in collaboration with local high school teachers is part of the funded work that aims to provide sophisticated but affordable spectroscopic tools and curriculum ideas to Colorado high school science programs. <br/><br/>Singlet fission is a photophysical phenomenon observed in certain organic materials wherein light absorption produces a spin-allowed singlet excited state that then non-radiatively converts to a pair of triplet excitations. If these triplets can be further transformed to charge carriers, it is possible to envision device scenarios where the solar spectrum is more efficiently utilized compared to devices in operation today. This research is predicated on the idea that molecular dimers are the fundamental unit for singlet fission and that they can provide a platform wherein synthetic manipulations that control the spatial juxtaposition and covalent interaction of chromophores are called upon to affect key photophysical rate constants. The most important design opportunity that is being tested relates to dimer point group symmetry and the idea that it can control the interference (constructive vs. destructive) of pathways in the quantum mechanical description of diabatic coupling for singlet fission. Other strategies will call on substituents to affect the relative energy of charge transfer states.


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II-New: Multi-Dimensional Drone Communication Infrastructure: Southern Methodist University

Joseph Camp

[email protected]

The next wave of applications for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) or drones range from delivery of consumer goods or Internet connectivity during natural disasters to defense scenarios such as autonomous combat or search and rescue, all of which require coordination of multiple entities across various altitudes from in-flight to ground-based stations. However, there are two important challenges to realizing such applications. First, positioning many antennas to communicate in three dimensions is non-trivial since the load capacity in terms of power and weight is highly restricted, and the drone body may block reception on the opposite side of the antenna. Second, large-scale antenna arrays are increasingly being used to increase channel quality in a given direction. However, there is limited antenna scale on a single UAV, and the challenge of distributing the antenna array across a drone swarm is extremely complex due to constant mobility, varying relative positions, and the inability to update the channel state of all transmitting nodes. In this project, the goal is to build MuDDI, a Multi-Dimensional Drone Communication Infrastructure, which will enable indoor and outdoor experimentation with UAVs to address research issues related to 3-D connectivity, distributed antennas across a drone swarm, and 3-D swarm formations that optimize the transmission to intended receivers.<br/><br/>To enable these research activities, there are four key development tasks to design such an infrastructure: (i.) building a programmable drone platform to enable hybrid beamforming on each drone to enable directional transmissions across the extremes of all three physical dimensions, which requires antennas on each face of the drone and switching elements to dynamically allocate limited radio frequency (RF) processing chains to these antennas, (ii.) designing a test infrastructure for large-scale distributed beamforming across UAVs for the experimental analysis of the various channel feedback mechanisms that have been set forth but have yet to be evaluated on drones with in-flight vibrations and mobility patterns and various swarm formations, (iii.) constructing and incorporating a large-scale antenna array over the surface of the ceiling and surrounding walls to capture various resulting transmission patterns of a single drone seeking 3-D connectivity, distributed drone swarm creating various formations, and a massive multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) ground station, and (iv.) integrating a massive MIMO control station that can enable directional transmissions to, and track the mobility of in-flight systems, enabling research on the various beam widths and multi-user beam patterns that may be simultaneously allocated among large antenna arrays.<br/><br/>This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.


AwardsInventXRMovement ThinkingThe Research University

Researching the Integration of Robotics into Middle School Physical Science Courses: Examining Instructional and Learning Outcomes

Sponsor: TERC Inc

Debra Bernstein [email protected] (Principal Investigator)
Michael Cassidy (Co-Principal Investigator)
Karen Mutch-Jones (Co-Principal Investigator)
Kristen Wendell (Co-Principal Investigator)


As computing has become integral to the practice of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), the STEM+Computing program seeks to address emerging challenges in computational STEM areas through the applied integration of computational thinking and computing activities within STEM teaching and learning in early childhood education through high school (PreK-12). Robotic technologies provide innovative ways of engaging students in computational thinking (CT) practices within STEM fields, but teachers may be reluctant to use robotics if they do not feel confident with the technology, or when they feel unprepared to make the technology relevant to their subject areas. This project responds to such reluctance by designing, testing, and refining a professional development program for middle school physical science teachers to: 1) develop and strengthen skills in robotics, programming, and identifying ways of using robotics to enhance the teaching and learning of physical science concepts, and 2) design integrated curriculum units that advance student CT skills and support learning in the physical sciences. The project will develop a comprehensive, 50-hour professional learning experience for middle school teachers who will develop learning modules that integrate computational thinking with physical science. After the professional learning experience, teachers will be supported in revising an existing physical science unit to incorporate computational thinking and robotics using a Hummingbird Bit robotics kit. The professional learning plan will begin with a 5-day summer session where teachers will examine exemplars of robotics integration in STEM lessons, explore robotics resources, and consider ways that robotics and CT can be used to enhance student learning in a curriculum unit on force and motion. During the following academic year, teachers will design and implement a lesson that integrates robotics with study of force and motion, and this experience will be followed by two professional learning days where teachers will discuss the successes and challenges of the implemented lessons. Prior to spring semester, teachers will meet together again for a day of lesson planning.

This project aims to advance knowledge about how to support teachers as designers of technology-enhanced instruction that integrates computing and CT with topics in physical science. The specific goals of project are to: 1) Design, test, and refine a professional development model that enables middle school physical science teachers to design instructional units that incorporate robotics to enhance student CT practices and support disciplinary learning objectives, 2) Identify the types and levels of supports that enable teachers to successfully implement integrated robotics units to increase engagement and interests among diverse learners, and 3) Conduct research to refine the professional development model and document the impacts of engaging students with computational technologies on learning of physical science and CT. Over the course of three years, the project will engage 22 teachers and approximately 1,120 middle school students. Project research will proceed in a design-test-revise cycle in pursuing answers to the following research questions: 1) How can a professional development intervention enable integration of robotics into physical science courses? 2) To what extent does teacher enactment reflect the goals and principles of the approach to integration, and what challenges do teachers face during enactment? 3) How does participation in integrated robotics lessons support student learning in the discipline? And 4) What opportunities does participation in integrated robotics lessons provide for students to engage in computational thinking practices? A variety of data sources will be used to collect the quantitative and qualitative data to be used in the mixed-methods analysis of teacher, student, and classroom outcomes.

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RET Site: Sustainable Development-Research Experience for Teachers: South Dakota School of Mines and Technology

Robb Winter

[email protected]

This Research Experiences for Teachers in Engineering and Computer Science Site: Sustainable Development-Research Experience for Teachers (SD-RET) at South Dakota School of Mines & Technology (SDSM&T) will expose middle and high school mathematics and science teachers in rural America to engineering and science research projects and a curriculum development strategies to improve the teaching and learning of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. To align with the educational and training needs of the 21st century and to increase the interests of students, particularly underrepresented minorities, in learning STEM disciplines, the SD-RET provides the teachers an access to the various engineering and science technologies and the tools to integrate engineering/science projects into K-12 curriculum.<br/><br/>This SD-RET project will directly involve at least 30 rural teachers over the three project years. During the 6-week summer program each year, the rural teachers will conduct research in the engineering and science research laboratories at SDSM&T as research assistants (referred to as SD-RET RAs) with formal/informal mentoring from the faculty and graduate/undergraduate students. The engineering and science research projects will focus on implementing the technologies to address challenges in sustainable development such as air quality, water resources and treatment, sustainable energy, and sustainable materials. In addition, the SD-RET RAs will enroll in a 2-credit graduate course entitled "STEM Education in Secondary Classroom" for pedagogical and curriculum development training based on state and national standards. By integrating the lab research experience and curriculum development skills, the SD-RET RAs will translate their engineering and science research experience into their STEM curriculums. The SD-RET project will provide multiple follow-up activities to enable the implementation of the SD-RET experience. The SD-RET Assessment Advisory Board will evaluate the project and provide feedback for continuous improvement. Beyond the 30 SD-RET RAs, this project has the potential to extend impacts to colleagues of the SD-RET RAs at the same schools, pre-service teachers enrolling in the curriculum development course, and educators who access to the SD-RET website.


AwardsInventXRNSFThe Research University

Interdisciplinary Graduate Training in the Science, Technology, and Applications of Augmented and Virtual Reality

Sponsor: University of Rochester

Mujdat Cetin [email protected] (Principal Investigator)
Jannick Rolland (Co-Principal Investigator)
Michele Rucci (Co-Principal Investigator)
Zhen Bai (Co-Principal Investigator)


Augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR) promises to become one of the most disruptive technologies of the 21st century, revolutionizing how we interact with each other, with our environment, and with devices and systems. VR uses advanced display and immersive audio technologies to create an interactive, three-dimensional (3D) environment. AR uses digital technology to overlay virtual objects onto the physical world to provide information and embellish our experiences. Current and envisioned application areas include education, healthcare, professional training, architectural and product design, remote interaction, and entertainment. Continued progress in the burgeoning field of AR/VR requires researchers with Ph.D. training and research experience spanning multiple disciplines including electronic and computing systems, perceptual and cognitive neuroscience, optics and imaging, computer vision, acoustics and audio, and human-computer interfaces. To address this need and realize the transformative potential of AR/VR technologies, this National Science Foundation Research Traineeship (NRT) Award to the University of Rochester will facilitate the development of a structured, multi-disciplinary Ph.D. training program on AR/VR. The project anticipates training 62 PhD students, including 12 funded trainees, from Electrical and Computer Engineering, Optics, Biomedical Engineering, Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Computer Science, and Neuroscience. In addition, the project will benefit approximately 300 other STEM graduate students who will participate in aspects of the training and professional development. Trainees will gain the vision and skills to advance AR/VR technologies as well as an appreciation for the broader cultural and societal implications of these technologies. The project will train inclusive cohorts of scientists and engineers to contribute to society as technical leaders in industry, academia, and government.

The project will train a new cohort of Ph.D. students with a unique set of competencies in the AR/VR domain. It will help shape how future scientists and engineers will be trained not only in AR/VR but more broadly in human-data-system interfaces. The project will advance interdisciplinary research with an innovative theme: integration of quantitative models of human perceptual-cognitive processes into cross-layer design approaches to create and quantitatively evaluate new AR/VR technologies and applications. Research thrusts integrated with the training program in a cross-cutting manner will advance the scientific foundations of AR/VR systems and impact the design of next-generation AR/VR systems. These research thrusts, corresponding to four layers of the AR/VR problem domain, are: (1) AR/VR platforms and computation, (2) perceptual-cognitive aspects of AR/VR design, (3) machine intelligence for AR/VR systems, and (4) AR/VR interfaces and applications. The training program contains three new innovative courses addressing the diverse backgrounds of incoming trainees, exposing them to AR/VR challenges and providing competency to work on AR/VR projects within multi-disciplinary teams as well as a variety of structured professional development activities. In addition, the training will include industry internships and immersive professional development encounters with industry leaders. Both the graduate training model and its outcomes will be widely disseminated to the broader academic community through organized events and a web presence.

The NSF Research Traineeship (NRT) Program is designed to encourage the development and implementation of bold, new potentially transformative models for STEM graduate education training. The program is dedicated to effective training of STEM graduate students in high priority interdisciplinary or convergent research areas through comprehensive traineeship models that are innovative, evidence-based, and aligned with changing workforce and research needs.

This award reflects NSF’s statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation’s intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

AwardsInventXRNSFThe Research University

NeuroTech – Bringing Technology to Neuroscience

Sponsor: Stanford University

Eduardo Chichilnisky [email protected] (Principal Investigator)
James McClelland (Co-Principal Investigator)
Jin Hyung Lee (Co-Principal Investigator)
Surya Ganguli (Co-Principal Investigator)


Deciphering how the brain works could have untold impacts on medicine, technology, commerce, and our understanding of ourselves. For example, advances in neurotechnology could lead to brain-machine interfaces to overcome sensory impairments and loss of movement due to neurodegenerative disease. Many of the most important advances in neuroscience have required interaction with technical fields such as physics, electrical and chemical engineering, bioengineering, statistics, and computer science, and this will increasingly be the case as the field advances. However, the path for top students from these disciplines to enter the field of neuroscience has always been challenging because they lack the appropriate background and awareness of key questions and technological limitations in the field. This National Science Foundation Research Traineeship (NRT) award to Stanford University will accelerate fundamental developments in neuroscience by attracting promising young talent from these technical disciplines to neuroscience and training them to be leaders in the field. The program will allow students to apply technological developments in diverse fields to the most important problems in neuroscience today and train a new generation of neuroscientists who will bring these technologies to fruition in academia, medicine, and the private sector. The project anticipates training thirty (30) PhD students, including twelve (12) funded trainees, from physics, electrical and chemical engineering, bioengineering, materials science, computer science, and other technical fields.

This traineeship program consists of a novel integrated curriculum of coursework, internship and training experiences, and outreach to achieve its goals. The program will emphasize training for acquiring and analyzing vast data sets, enabling an understanding of nervous system circuitry at a scale that was unimaginable just a few years ago, and connecting the novel data to Stanford’s strength in theory, inference from large data sets, and computational modeling. The program will introduce a rigorous multi-year curriculum for trainees, building on their home-discipline training and allowing them to collaborate with each other and with the members of the Neurosciences PhD program. Training will leverage the highly successful Stanford ADVANCE program that supports new PhD students with a special summer program prior to the start of graduate training, and build on it with several approaches customized to this program. The program will be specifically designed to optimize trainee preparation for a career in academia or in a technology industry setting, utilizing internship placements with both startups and established corporations.

The NSF Research Traineeship (NRT) Program is designed to encourage the development and implementation of bold, new potentially transformative models for STEM graduate education training. The program is dedicated to effective training of STEM graduate students in high priority interdisciplinary research areas through comprehensive traineeship models that are innovative, evidence-based, and aligned with changing workforce and research needs.

This award reflects NSF’s statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation’s intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.


Please report errors in award information by writing to: [email protected].


Technology-Human Integrated Knowledge Education and Research (THINKER)

Sponsor: Clemson University

Laine Mears [email protected] (Principal Investigator)
Amy Apon (Co-Principal Investigator)
Deborah Switzer (Co-Principal Investigator)
Mary Kurz (Co-Principal Investigator)
Joshua Summers (Co-Principal Investigator)
Laura Stanley (Former Co-Principal Investigator)


The pervasiveness of new digital technologies in manufacturing is changing the way that data are generated, interpreted and shared over networks of machines, robotics and software systems. This “industrial internet of things” holds great promise for improving the quality and productivity of manufacturing in the United States. However, the ability of human workers to effectively interface with such digital systems is limited, potentially leading to disruptions in cognition that may negatively affect output and job satisfaction. This National Science Foundation Research Traineeship (NRT) award prepares master’s and doctoral degree students at Clemson University to advance discoveries at the nexus of humans, technology, work, and health, through the convergence of human factors, robotics, cognitive sciences, artificial intelligence, systems engineering, education, manufacturing and social behavioral sciences. This will be achieved through the design and integration of human digital technologies that enhance humans’ physical and cognitive interaction and abilities in manufacturing environments. The project anticipates training fifty (50) M.S. and Ph.D. students, including twenty-two (22) funded trainees, from electrical engineering, industrial engineering, computer science, manufacturing, systems integration, psychology, and sociology. These students will interface with a parallel program of undergraduate and technical college students in a controlled manufacturing environment to test deployment and integration across multiple academic levels.

This project responds to the critical need to help shape and better prepare the STEM graduate student of tomorrow through an innovated curriculum that focuses on the new digital and smart manufacturing, automation, and associated data systems. The training and research takes a human-centered design approach in the emerging digital manufacturing enterprise (i.e., Industrial Internet of Things), by quantifying physical and human cognition and developing augmented technologies (e.g. augmented reality aids for worker empowerment) to improve worker behaviors and attitudes in the manufacturing enterprise. This project will focus on an automotive industry exemplar (i.e., vehicle assembly operation), employing a factory setting which includes parts manufacture, structural and subassembly operations, robotics, kitting, logistics, and a full-scale vehicle assembly line, together with parallel programs in undergraduate and technical college curricula. The multi-level educational approach is expected to drive improved team communication, generate knowledge on worker behaviors and attitudes, and prepare students for leading implementation of the technologies under study in manufacturing and other industries.

The NSF Research Traineeship (NRT) Program is designed to encourage the development and implementation of bold, new potentially transformative models for STEM graduate education training. The program is dedicated to effective training of STEM graduate students in high priority interdisciplinary research areas through comprehensive traineeship models that are innovative, evidence-based, and aligned with changing workforce and research needs.

AwardsInventXRMovement ThinkingNSFThe Research University

Innovations in Development: Community-Driven Projects That Adapt Technology for Environmental Learning in Nature Preserves

Sponsor: University of Maryland College Park

Jennifer Preece [email protected] (Principal Investigator)
Tamara Clegg (Co-Principal Investigator)


While low-income and minority communities suffer disproportionately from poor environmental conditions, members of these communities tend to be under-represented in participatory scientific projects and informal science learning opportunities. There are many benefits to community-driven STEM projects, both for individuals’ experiential learning and for the betterment of communities. Expanding participation also contributes to a more complete understanding of complex environmental problems, including STEM content and skills. This project engages members of racially and economically diverse communities in identifying and carrying out environmental projects that are meaningful to their lives, and adapts technology known as NatureNet to assist them. NatureNet, which encompasses a cell phone app, a multi-user, touch-based tabletop display and a web-based community, was developed with prior NSF support. Core participants involved in programs of the Anacostia Watershed Society in Washington, D.C., and Maryland, and the Reedy Creek Nature Preserve in Charlotte, NC, will work with naturalists, educators, and technology specialists to ask scientific questions and form hypotheses related to urban waterway restoration and preservation of native species. They will then collect and analyze data using NatureNet, requesting changes to the technology to customize it as needed for their projects. Casual visitors to the nature centers will be able to interact with the environmental projects via the tabletop, and those who live farther away will be able to participate more peripherally via the online community. This study is funded by the Advancing Informal STEM Learning (AISL) program, which seeks to advance new approaches to, and evidence-based understanding of, the design and development of STEM learning in informal environments. This includes providing multiple pathways for broadening access to and engagement in STEM learning experiences, advancing innovative research on and assessment of STEM learning in informal environments, and developing understandings of deeper learning by participants.

The research project, led by researchers from the University of Maryland, College Park, with collaborators from the University of North Carolina, Charlotte, and the University of Colorado, Boulder, will provide answers to two questions: 1) How do community-driven informal environmental learning projects impact participants, including their motivation to actively participate in science issues via technology and their disposition toward nature preserves and scientific inquiry, and 2) What are the key factors (e.g., demographic composition of participants, geographical location) that influence the development of community-driven environmental projects? Researchers will gather extensive qualitative and quantitative data to understand how community projects are selected and carried out, how participants approach technology use and adaptation, and how informal learning and engagement on STEM-related issues can be fostered over a period of several months and through iterative project cycles. Data will be collected through motivation questionnaires; focus groups; interviews; tabletop, mobile, and website interaction logs; field notes from participatory design and reflection sessions; and project journals kept by nature preserve staff. Through extensive research, iterative design, and evaluation efforts, researchers will develop an innovative model for community-driven environmental projects that will deepen informal science education by demonstrating how members of diverse communities connect environmental knowledge and scientific inquiry skills to the practices, values, and goals of their communities, and how technology can be used to facilitate such connections.


AwardsInventXRMovement ThinkingNSF

A Youth-Led Citizen Science Network for Community Environmental Assessment

Sponsor: Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville

Georgia Bracey [email protected] (Principal Investigator)
Sharon Locke (Co-Principal Investigator)
Ben Greenfield (Co-Principal Investigator)
Adriana Martinez (Co-Principal Investigator)


This project will advance efforts of the Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers (ITEST) program to better understand and promote practices that increase student motivations and capacities to pursue careers in fields of science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) by developing a technology-rich, out-of-school time STEM program for underserved middle and high school youth. The new program features citizen science activities involving mobile sensors, drones, mapping software, and other technologies associated with environmental science data collection and careers. Four learning modules will be developed that focus on air, noise, and soil pollution, and how factors associated with land use contribute to different types of pollution. Field data will be compared to land cover classifications to examine how pollutants are related to and influenced by natural and built environments. Participants will also use their developing technology skills to communicate their findings to larger audiences using a website, digital stories, videos, and citizen science cafes. In the science cafes, youth will gain leadership skills by guiding their parents or caregivers, siblings, and the community at large in citizen science activities. This project extends the typical pattern of citizen science projects by having participants go beyond joining established citizen science projects to initiating their own projects grounded in issues and affordances of their local communities. If successful, the model from this project has the potential to be broadly adapted to other communities and linked to research of local or regional interest or importance.

This design and development project will directly engage 45 students in grades 8 and 9, with potential for reaching over 300 individuals as participants’ families and community members become involved in citizen science cafes. Most project activities will take place at government subsidized housing sites. The program progresses through five elements: curriculum development, instructor preparation, immersive summer sessions, school-year sessions for participating youth, and citizen science cafes. The project will develop four teaching modules: Air Pollution, Noise Pollution, Soil Pollution, and Natural and Built Environments. Students will gain experience with field research methods while learning to collect high-quality data using various sensors and related technologies. They will use the data to answer scientific questions. A mixed methods approach will be employed to examine outcomes related to the research questions: (1) How does participation in community-focuses environmental citizen science impact the development of three aspects of science: performance, competence, and recognition as a scientist?(2) To what extent and how does participation in community-focused environmental citizen science activities move youth towards full participation in the science community? and (3) How do levels of performance, competence, and recognition influence progress towards full participation in the science community? Data sources will include a student science identity survey, a test of relevant knowledge, a student interview protocol, a student observation protocol, student artifact rubrics, and a parent/caregiver interview protocol. Interviews will be conducted with student participants at regular intervals, and with parents/caregivers at the end of program sessions.

This project will expand the existing ITEST portfolio by addressing important questions relating to community-relevant curricula, linkages of formal and informal education, and examining potential new elements of STEM learning ecosystems, including the use of student-initiated citizen science endeavors and youth-led citizen science cafes. Through the embedded research, this project will also advance understanding of science identity development and its relationship to STEM occupational choices.


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